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Checkout Chuckout!
A directory for campaigners against supermarket developments

1. INTRODUCTION

This directory was first compiled in 1998 to offer help, contacts and details of useful publications to people fighting supermarket developments. It was widely welcomed by campaigners. With the continuing expansion of supermarkets and the arrival of Wal-Mart in the UK, we felt the directory needed updating. The directory is not definitive but gives details of a selection of past, present, successful and not so successful local campaigns. All the contacts listed are happy to share experiences and discuss tactics/strategies with local groups campaigning against supermarkets.

Alongside the directory of local campaigns are national contacts and resources and a brief overview of supermarket expansion policies and of the planning regulations which apply to them.

2. SUPERMARKET EXPANSION

Since the 1950s food retailing in the UK has undergone a radical shift from high street and district centres comprised of specialist food shops; grocers, greengrocers, bakers and butchers to the dominance of food retailing by the 'big four' supermarkets: Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury and Safeway. This long term restructuring has accelerated with the huge increase in out of town superstores. The number of superstores increased from 457 to 1,102 between 1986 and 1997, whilst eight independent shops have closed every day during the same period. The number of convenience stores has declined by almost 40% in the eleven years from 1986 to 1997.

A supermarket is a self-service grocery store that sells food, beverages and other goods. It is usually located on urban high streets or in shopping malls, covering an area of between 4 - 12,000 ft. During the last 10 - 15 years, new branches have opened on the edge of towns or out of town.

A superstore is a retail outlet specialising in grocery sales, although not exclusively selling food of between 25 - 50, 000 ft.

A hypermarket, is a superstore over 50,000 ft. These are always out of town or on large out of town complexes, and offer extensive car parks. They offer a larger range of non-food products, such as DIY and garden products and electrical goods. French and US hypermarkets can be around 90,000 ft.

Definitions from Keynote Report on Supermarkets and Superstores, 2001.

Whilst all the supermarket multiples threaten local communities and the local economy, different supermarkets seem to be pursuing different strategies. Tesco and Sainsbury have shifted their expansion programmes to focus on smaller format inner city stores such as Tesco 'Metro' and Sainsbury's 'Local'. Somerfield has the largest number of stores, but these are mainly smaller and sited in town centres. They have been selling off their larger stores in order to concentrate on small neighbourhood stores. Asda, on the other hand, whilst refurbishing and extending many of its stores, is also planning to build 20 new out of town Asda Wal-Mart supercentres of around 90,000 ft. Wal-Mart, which acquired Asda in 1999 for 6.7 billion pounds, is the world's largest retailer and is well known for its strategy of destroying the economic and social fabric of small towns all across America by building giant out of town superstores and selling goods at rock bottom prices.

Number of Supermarkets and Superstores 2000

Somerfield/Kwiksave 1325
Tesco 568
Safeway 500
Sainsburys 440
Asda 240
Marks and Spencer 297

We can expect to see further consolidation in food retailing over the next few years as the supermarket giants continue to battle for domination of the global market. Expansion across Europe and the US is the way supermarkets believe they will keep profitable and stay competitive, either through acquiring foreign chains, or by moving in. In the UK, along with Wal-Mart, the giant German discounters, Aldi and Lidl, have already moved in as has the Danish chain, Netto. Both Carrefour, the French multinational and the largest grocery retailer in Europe, and Dutch multinational Royal Ahold have stated that they would like to enter (in Carrefour's case, return to) the UK grocery sector.

Supermarkets are increasingly focusing on non-grocery goods which will impact on the size and siting of supermarket developments. Tesco is already the largest petrol retailer in the country, and all the supermarkets are eagerly becoming chemists, news agents, DIY and garden suppliers, travel agents, banks…in fact taking over the entire high street. The success, or otherwise, of internet shopping could affect supermarket expansion plans. Internet shopping may mean less people buying directly from supermarkets, but would also mean more lorries on the road delivering from dedicated distribution centres or from the stores themselves.

3. SUPERMARKET PLANNING LEGISLATION

That the growth of out of town retailing has been damaging to town centre and local economies, damaging to the countryside and has increased traffic is clear. This damage was recognised by the Conservative Government in 1993 when it introduced Planning Policy Guidance Note 13 on Transport (PPG13) which required the consideration of locally accessible shops in planning decisions. The Conservatives also revised Planning Policy Guidance Note 6 on Town Centres and Retail Development (PPG6) to protect town centres against out of town developments, firstly in 1993 and then again in 1996 when they required local authorities to use a 'sequential approach', and to only grant planning permission for out of town sites where there were no viable alternatives firstly in the town and secondly on the edge of town.

In 2000, the Environment Committee of the House of Commons slammed the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) proposals to relax planning controls on supermarkets. It also condemned the OFT for referring supermarket planning matters to the Competition Commission without taking evidence from planning experts or the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions.

The Environment Committee said relaxing planning controls would be disastrous and called for supermarkets to be built on town centre sites to revitalise communities and curb traffic congestion due to out-of-town shopping malls. In historic towns, it called for supermarkets to be sited on the edge-of-town, rather than damaging the character of town centres.
Whilst the new planning guidance has not prevented all new store development, there has been a sharp decline in new planning approvals for out of town superstores. The Labour government has so far continued to uphold and even strengthen the guidance.

Down but not out
The supermarkets will of course continue to lobby for out-of-town stores as this is where they can get the economies of scale to support their profits and the acres of free car parking which gives them an enormous competitive advantage over city centre stores. Whether they have Tony Blair's sympathetic ear is not clear yet. He met supermarket lobbyists before the 1997 General Election (the meeting was set up by Lord Sainsbury) and after the Election met Wal-Mart representatives before the US giant took over Asda. Planning policy was apparently discussed on both occasions. But, at least so far, there has been no change.

In the meanwhile the supermarkets have responded to the tougher planning regulations by development at both ends of the size spectrum - by adding extensions to their current out of town stores and developing new smaller formats in towns; city centre convenience stores (Tesco Metro and Sainsbury's Central), small superstores (Tesco Compact), neighbourhood convenience stores (Sainsbury's Local) and petrol forecourt shops (Tesco Express, Safeway/BP).

Out of town development may have slowed but all supermarket developments pose a threat to local communities. Whether they are on the high street, in shopping malls or out of town, they are attempting to bring what the entire high street can offer, under one roof, thus compromising the economic viability of small independent retailers, increasing traffic and destroying the social role that small shops provide in bringing together communities and fostering trust about the products provided.

Bulldozing protest
In December 2001, the Government released a planning 'green' paper outlining new proposals for planning legislation. Whilst it seems as though New Labour's agenda is to fast track major infrastructure development projects, changing rules for public inquiries on new roads, nuclear power plants, airports and the like, it seems unlikely that it will affect supermarkets.

What does clearly favour supermarkets is the green papers' firm refusal to consider third party rights of appeal, despite widespread support for this and the fact that the lack of such a right appears to contradict article 6 of the Human Rights Act. Currently, only the applicant i.e. the supermarket, can appeal against a planning decision if it goes against them. Objectors have no right to appeal. This more than anything would have given clout to objectors against supermarket proposals.


4. USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAMPAIGN

Economic impact of out of town stores
The following may be useful to persuade your local planner that out of town stores, whether urban or rural can be opposed under planning policy guidance if they can be shown to damage the local economy.

"Council planners can resist granting permission for developments that will undermine the local economy. While small independent shops often stock local products, supermarkets rarely do, and their centralised distribution systems mean that 'local' products may be transported hundreds of miles to depots and then back to local superstores. Research by the DETR (The Impact of Large Foodstores on Market Towns and District Centres, 1998) and the Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs Committee (Second Report: Environmental Impact of Supermarket Competition, 2000) found that new out-of-centre supermarkets have a serious adverse impact on existing independent shops in villages and town centres, resulting in their decline and sometimes their closure. The ramifications will go beyond the shopkeeper and have a negative effect on the local rural economy.

Resisting new supermarkets on this basis could be justified with reference to Planning Policy Guidance Note 6: Town Centres and Retail Development (1996) paragraph 1.16, which states that proposals for new out-of-centre superstores should be judged not only on their likely impact on the vitality of town centres, but also on the impact on the rural economy. However a recent survey by the Planning Policies Research Group has found that few planning authorities are using this tool, perhaps because there is no established methodology for measuring the impact on the rural economy. Any assessment of this should include the impact on local food producers; both those that sell directly to the public through farm shops and farmers' markets, and those who rely on local shops to sell their produce."

Extracted from Lucy Nichol's paper 'How can planning help the local food economy? A guide for planners' (2001).

Office of Fair Trading inquiries into the siting of new stores
Further useful ammunition to support campaigns against supermarket development comes from the Competition Commission report on Supermarkets (2001) which made the following recommendation: "The CC proposed that the Office of Fair Trading assess whether particular parties should be allowed to develop large new stores on competition grounds framed in terms of drive time between stores e.g. if a supermarket wished to build a new store over a certain size (suggested 1,000sqm) within 15 minutes drive time of one of their existing stores or significantly extend the grocery retailing of one of their existing stores, they would be required to apply to the Director General of the Office of Fair Trading for consent."

5. LAUNCHING YOUR CAMPAIGN


Stage 1 Know your enemy - check Supermarket's own web sites, as well as the Corporate Watch web site for more information (see section 7).

Stage 2 Build local support - contact traders, residents, environmental and community groups.
Use the local press and distribute leaflets.
You might want to contact some of the groups listed in Section 7 for ideas for text for leaflets and other communications.

Stage 3 Be clear about the planning process - when are the committee meetings; who are the committee members and which might be sympathetic to what arguments; which officers deal with the application; can you influence the full council meeting? It helps to draw a diagram of who makes decisions at various stages, and how they can be influenced.

Often strong local opposition to a development, together with sound arguments, can persuade the planning committee to reject it.

Stage 4 All too often the supermarket developers will go to appeal, and possibly a public enquiry. They don't like to be told 'no' and will use their financial muscle to get the best lawyers. If it gets to this stage you will probably need expert representation and advice - some useful planning and legal contacts are listed in sections 8 and 9.

Stage 5 If the store does get through, pay attention to the detail - there have been several cases where stores have been designed specifically to allow expansion at some later date (often despite assurances to the contrary). Also, it might just be possible that even if the store gets permission, the access roads could be refused, making the store not viable.

Another useful tactic which can be used throughout the campaign is non-violent direct action. This has been effective in stopping other developments around the country. It gives a community the chance to impose direct financial costs on the corporation that has ignored its views. An early threat of direct action might also put the developer off, draw some unwelcome publicity for the corporation and boost your support among the local community. Note that once one store has a foothold in a town or community, its rivals will be watching very closely, eager to pounce too. Towns rarely stop at just one major store. So even if direct action doesn't stop the store it's targeting, the next developer is unlikely to want to face that kind of opposition. Get in touch with your local Earth First! Group -see section 7

Finally, enjoy your campaign. Good luck!


6. LOCAL CAMPAIGNS AGAINST SUPERMARKETS

ASDA/WAL-MART

Conwy
Conwy Friends of the Earth
Contact: Christopher Draper on 01492 547590
Conwy FoE have been campaigning against plans to move a local school on to a contaminated waste site and build an Wal-Mart/Asda store on the existing school ground. Asda have just being granted planning permission despite fierce local opposition including the Parents Group. Conwy FoE claim that Wal-Mart were behind the school moving and that the Council have constantly misled the public and councillors. Despite council claims the Environment Agency, Wales does not support the scheme. The Children's Commissioner for Wales has stated that the school move 'should not go ahead'. FoE and the Parents Group are now asking the Minister for the Environment for Wales for a revocation and to call in the application. A decision was due by the end of December 2001.

Walsall
Walsall Friends of the Earth
Contact: Gerald Kells, 55 Folly House Lane, Walsall, WS1 3EL. Tel: 01922 636601
Gerald presented the case against ASDA at a Public Enquiry in mid 1997, and has lots of experience of public enquiries generally (he has done 6 or 7, some of them successfully, including against the expansion of Merry Hill shopping centre). He can advise groups about public enquiries, the planning process and campaign strategy. He is happy to give advice over the phone or send his proof of evidence for the ASDA application. He is currently campaigning against Tesco plans to replace their town centre store, which serves people without cars, with a smaller Tesco Metro, and build a big new store on the edge of town. Opposition say it is 'out of town' but the council at the public enquiry in September 2001 argued that it was 'in town' because the site was included in the town plan. They are currently awaiting the outcome of a public enquiry held in September 2001.

Chesterfield
Chesterfield and North Derbyshire Friends of the Earth
Contact: Simon Reading -email campaigns@chesterfieldfoe.org.uk
Chesterfield FoE are backing up the local Council which turned down an application for a new Asda store. It went to Appeal over the definition of the site as 'in town' or 'out of town'. This was because although it is close to the town centre it is only accessible via a dual carriageway. The site is also zoned industrial land and the council didn't want it re-zoned. As a remit of the appeal, a public enquiry was held in July 2001. Currently awaiting outcome.

MORRISONS

Sheffield
Tyzack Site Action Group
Contact: Jenny - Tel: 0114 258 7073 Email: jenny.patient@talk21.com
In November 1998, the Council refused planning permission for a Morrison's superstore, and the developers lodged an appeal. In August 1999 they submitted a completely new application for a big health and fitness club which also included a medium sized supermarket. This proposal still had the same traffic implications as the previous one, but did include offices and light industry. In February 2001, the Council gave permission for the development, but had to go to the Secretary of State because another application for a supermarket in a more favourable location had been submitted. The developers came back with the same proposal but minus the supermarket and in July 2001 were given outline planning permission.

SAFEWAY

Leominster
Contact: Felicity Norman, The Folly, Luston, Nr Leominster, HR6 0BX. Tel: 01568 780886.
A Safeway store was built in Leominster in 1993-4. Research by the DETR, The Impact of Large Foodstores on Market Towns and District Centres, published in 1998 revealed that when Safeway opened the store, many of the town's small shops promptly lost 30 per cent of their trade. A last minute campaign tried, and failed, to raise local opposition to the store. Local traders took little interest at the time, but since the store was built they have really felt the impact and a successful loyalty card scheme "Loyal to Leominster" was launched to support local businesses. A good example of campaigning against out of town developments and in support of local traders in town centres even after the supermarket has been built.

SAINSBURY

Brighton
Contact: BUDD - Brighton Urban Design and Development & Stop the Store.
Ben Messer, Sara Bragg or Keith Taylor, BUDD co-ordinators, Tel: 01273 324198 / 681166 / 291165 respectively: email Ben on Ben@clevel.co.uk www.solarcity.co.uk/BUDD
BUDD formed in early 1997 to provide a forum for debate on a proposed development of the station site, focused around a Sainsbury's superstore and car park. BUDD aimed to raise awareness of the implications of the development; to explore community-related development options and to lobby the local planning authority. The Council was persuaded - in part by BUDD's efforts - to refuse the planning application, and after an extended public enquiry in 1998, its decision was upheld by the Secretary of State. The Council then embarked on a public consultation process with a view to drawing up a new Planning Brief for the site. (Previously there was no such formal document). 500 people attended a Community Planning Event in October 1999, and overwhelmingly opposed any major retail uses (with associated car parking) for the site.

However, it soon became clear that the Council was reluctant to continue opposition to Sainsbury's, which was intent on putting in a further application. It thus organised a Working Group, with representation skewed to the interests of the landowner, Railtrack and Sainsbury's, which in time duly delivered a Planning Brief that explicitly allowed for a supermarket (only a few metres short of the official definition of 'superstore') on the site. This effectively ruled out more community-related and sustainable development options.

Meanwhile Railtrack, Sainsbury's and other developers formed the 'New England Consortium', and delivered a new application in Sept. 2001 for a more mixed-use development including housing, hotels, language schools as well as a supermarket with 200 space car park. The public has continued to express major opposition, not least because the proposal does not address longstanding concerns about the effects of the supermarket on smaller local retailers, on traffic and pollution, on the character of the area, or adequately address the need for affordable housing locally. However, with the Planning Brief in place, the struggle to oppose it will be harder this time.

Westbury-on-Trym
Westbury Residents Action Group (WRAG).
Contact: Denise Barwell Tel: 0117 9508012
Email denise@corporacare.co.uk.

WRAG was formed in May 2001 after canvassing local residents and finding overwhelming local opposition to the development of a new Sainsbury's store. Westbury-on-Trym is an urban village currently well served by small local retailers and a small Somerfield. There are at least seven supermarkets within approx. four miles, including a very large Wal-Mart. The land in question is designated in the Local Plan as 'open space for recreational and leisure purposes'. The land is made up of individually owned allotments, some of which are subject to restrictive covenants.

Westbury-on-Trym is a conservation area. Sainsbury's have applied for planning permission to demolish three houses and to build a two storey store with a sales area of 15,000 square feet and an extension to an existing car park. The local planning officer asked for an environmental impact assessment several months ago that has not yet been supplied by Sainsbury's. There is a church dating to the Saxon period on the fringe of the proposed development, and the oldest inhabited house in Bristol is alongside the site. This is also an interdenominational house of prayer and meditation. There has already been some local media coverage regarding the affect on this house of a supermarket car park at the end of the garden. WRAG are currently undertaking a car survey.

TESCO

Hadleigh, Suffolk
CAASH - Campaign Against Another Supermarket in Hadleigh
Contact: John Bloomfield, Hadleigh Society Tel: 01473 822063
The Campaign Against Another Supermarket in Hadleigh,(CAASH) was successful in stopping a Tesco superstore on the edge of the centre of Hadleigh, Suffolk.

The Hadleigh Society and other like-minded bodies teamed up in April 1999 to oppose proposals from two supermarkets to build on the site. In October 1999, people voted in a referendum following which the Town Council rejected the Tesco application, whilst recommending that an application by Buyright Stores should be approved. Carter Commercial's appeal was inevitable, leading to the opening of a Public Enquiry in October. The weight of evidence filled more than the three weeks allocated, and the conclusion could not be scheduled until March 2001, two years after the proposal was first aired. The Inspector's report recommended that both supermarket proposals be refused. The Secretary of State has agreed and sent out the formal letters turning down both Tesco's appeal and Buyright's application.

In summary, the Inspector accepted that the need for a supermarket was proved but rejected the Tesco proposal on the grounds that the building was of an unsuitable design: the demolition of 109 High Street and creation of a wide entrance would not enhance the outstanding conservation area. The proposed mono-pitched roof structure and high wall would be damaging to the amenities of Sun Court, a grade II listed building. The Inspector repeated in her report that the proposed building looked as if it had been designed by Pinewood studios! The Inspector also considered that the proposed road junction would create traffic problems and would not be capable of enhancement. She was concerned that residents would suffer from disturbance by traffic, and in particular, from the sound levels produced by traffic at the access point. The Inspector's only significant objection to the Buyright proposal was that the building of a supermarket adjacent to the existing store would create a "one-stop" shopping site from which few people would walk into the High Street. The local shops might therefore suffer.

Top tips from the Hadleigh Society's campaign include:

· Prepare carefully - it took CAASH about a year to gather necessary information
· Rather than address the weaknesses in the application, look at what they've left out. Someone with a good, cynical mind is a great asset!
· Use a range of tactics. In Hadleigh, we used real cars to stage the council's projected traffic figures. This caused town centre gridlock - what further proof was needed! Another tactic was to build a model of the development to illustrate the inappropriateness of site and design. In Hadleigh, this included erecting scaffolding to illustrate the height of building.
· Follow the rules to the letter with regard to the Planning Inspector.
· Engage as many of your friends and colleagues in the campaign e.g. use your Christmas Card list to ask your friends to write to the District Council.
· Brief your District Councillors away from the Officers.
· If you get obscure and confusing replies from the company concerned, this can be publicly exposed to the Inspector. I asked a simple question about relative heights of buildings. After a few days I received a letter with a supposed explanation. I got the proposer's 'expert' to read this out, stating that I could not follow it. The proposer got a real roasting for sending me misleading information that purported to clarify, but blatantly did not.

Lewisham
Hither Green Heritage,
Contact: Douglas Earle, 144 Hither Green Lane, London SE13 6QA.
Tel: 0208 244 3778.
Tesco bought the Hither Green Hospital for £5m, and sought planning permission to redevelop it, although there were already several supermarkets nearby. The campaign against it focused on heritage issues (preserving the old buildings and their setting), traffic, impact on local shops and loss of trees. The application went to appeal in 1999 and was rejected by the Inspectorate. The main reason for rejection was the impact it would have on the local town centre.

Sherringham
SCAMROD (Sherringham Campaign Against Major Retail Over Development),
Contact: Reg Grimes, 33 Beeston Road, Sherringham, Norfolk, NR26 8EJ. Tel: 01263 824343.
The campaign is fighting two major superstores: Tesco (out of town) and Budgens on the edge of town. SCAMROD would prefer an in town site. Planning applications are in and SCAMROD have submitted objections.

Stow-on-the-Wold
North Cotswold CPRE
Contact: c/o Lynn Greenwold, Digbeth, Digbeth St, Stow-on-the-Wold, Cheltenham, Glos. GL54 1BN Tel: 01451 870 163.
The group fought an edge-of-town Tesco development in a small market town, and lost - the store opened in Autumn 1997. The Planning Committee refused permission three times, but council officers were in favour, and took it to full council, who pushed it through, first changing the local development plan. The campaigners managed to change some of the detail e.g. height, visual obtrusiveness. But despite agreements to the contrary, the campaigners are worried that Tesco intends to expand the store (it has been built so as to allow extension), and add a petrol station in the future.
Llandovery
Contact: Mr Davies, 4 Kings Road, Llandovery, Carmarthenshire, SA20 0PU. Tel: 01550 720 269.

In the late 1990's there were plans for a store and petrol station on a green field site at edge of this small market town (2,000 population). Local traders and residents were concerned about the damage it would do to the town centre. The retail impact assessment carried out for Tesco was felt to be highly inaccurate, so Camarthenshire County Council commissioned its own. Currently there is a revised application for a central town location which some retailers feel might encourage more people to shop in the town. An environmental impact assessment (flood prevention scheme) was needed and the retailer had to pay half the cost, approx. £600,000. In June 2001 Tesco withdrew their application because they felt there wasn't sufficient parking in the scheme for the edge of town development.

Holywell, Flintshire
Contacts Roberta Owen, Friends of the Earth Flintshire Tel: 01352 710714 Email: jgowen@lineone.net
David McKnight, Youth Coalition Gogledd Cymru Tel: 01352 711416
Email: david@milwr.freeserve.co.uk
Only a few months ago, a proposal from Tesco to build an out of town superstore in Flintshire was rejected by Flintshire County Council on grounds that new out-of-town stores in Q'ferry and Broughton have already damaged town centres in the county. Now Tesco have made a new proposal to develop an out-of-town store and petrol station in Holywell.

Friends of the Earth Flintshire and Youth Coalition Gogledd Cymru are working together to develop strategies to (a) fight Tesco's proposals to build yet another out-of-town superstore, and (b) highlight alternative ways to nurture a sustainable and fair local economy.


7. GENERAL ADVICE

For campaigning against supermarket developments

SUSTAIN
94 White Lion Street, London, N1 9PF
Tel: 0207 837 1228 Fax: 0207 837 1141
Web: www.sustainweb.org

A coalition of farming, organic sector, environmental and conservation, development, animal welfare and consumer organisations working together to research and promote sustainable agriculture.

Friends of the Earth
26-28 Underwood Street, London, N1 7JQ.
Tel: 0207 490 1555. Fax: 0207 490 0881.
Web: www.foe.co.uk
Local Groups co-ordinator- Fiona Roberts: Email: fionar@foe.co.uk
Friends of the Earth is one of the UK's largest environmental campaigning groups. Contact them for more information on all aspects of local campaigning and details of your local groups.
Jean Saunders of Swindon Friends of the Earth is an experienced campaigner and happy to talk to other campaigners: Email:foeswindon@hotmail.com tel:01793 783 040

Corporate Watch
16B Cherwell Street,Oxford OX4 1BG, UK
Tel +44 (0) 1865 791 391
Email: mail@corporatewatch.org
Web: www.corporatewatch.org.uk

Researches and exposes corporate corruption. Website has profiles of companies and campaign ideas. Also publishes a bi-monthly newsletter and email news updates. It also acts as an information service to support, strengthen and initiate grassroots campaigns against large companies. The UK Food Industry is currently a major focus for research.

OTDOGS - Opposition to Destruction of Open Green Spaces
c/o John Beasley, 6 Everthorpe Rd, London, SE15 4DA.
Tel: 0208 693 9412.

Active in fighting supermarket applications in sensitive areas. Went to Tesco AGM to ask questions about their practices, also to Sainsburys. Has produced "Save Green Spaces from Destruction by food giants: a practical guide to local action." 1994. (£3.40) post free. Gives advice over the telephone and in writing.
John Beasley would be interested to hear from people who strongly suspect that money has been paid to encourage planning permission to be granted.

The Land Is Ours - Chapter 7
Tel: 01460 249 204
E-mail: office@tlio.demon.co.uk
Web: www.oneworld.org/tlio
A landrights movement for Britain, campaigning for access to the land, its resources and the decision making processes affecting them. Amongst its aims are derelict urban land to be used to meet basic social needs affordable homes and free recreation, ahead of destructive luxuries like superstores an exclusive housing). It also campaigns for sustainable agriculture, protection and reclamation of common space, and a reform of planning and public inquires.

Open Spaces Society
25a Bell St, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire RG9 2BA.
Tel: 01491 573535. Web: www.oss.org.uk

Can advise on Commons and open spaces under threat.

The Wildlife Trusts - national office.
The Kiln, Waterside, Mather Road, Newark, NG24 1WT.
Tel: 01636 677 711. Fax: 01636 670001
www.wildlifetrusts.org
A network of charitable trusts working to conserve local wildlife and wild places. Phone the national office for details of your county Trust for help and advice on how to protect the wildlife.

English Heritage
23 Saville Row, London, W1S 2ET.
Tel: 0207 973 3000. Fax: 0207 973 3430.
Web: www.english-heritage.org.uk

A Government organisation who will advise on archaeological and cultural heritage features.

Council for the Protection of Rural England (CPRE)
Warwick House, 25 Buckingham Palace Road, London, SW1W OPP.
Tel: 0207 976 6433. Fax: 0207 976 6373.
Web: www.cpre.org.uk
A national charity that helps people to protect their local countryside where there is threat, to enhance where there is opportunity, and to keep it beautiful, productive and enjoyable for everyone.
There are branches in every county and 43 local groups. At any on time numerous local groups are involved in campaigning against new supermarkets. Contact CPRE to find out your nearest group.The organisation produces a number of guides on planning, see publications in section 10

Council for British Archaeology
Bowes Morrell House, 111 Walmgate, York, Y01 9WA.
Tel: 01904 671417
Email: Info@britarch.ac.uk
Web: www.britarch.ac.uk
National pressure and campaign group working with all aspects of archaeology and cultural heritage. Will offer advice.

Rescue: The British Archaeological Trust
15a Bull Plain, Hertford, Hertfordshire, G14 1DX.
Tel: 01992 553377.
An independent charity promoting archaeological interests in Britain and seeks to maintain the position of archaeology as a vital part of our nations cultural life

Earth First! Action Update
Tel: 01603 612 265
Email: actionupdate@gn.apc.org
Publishes the monthly update of non-violent direct-action and contacts list of Earth First! groups. Useful if your campaign is considering non-violent direct-action to highlight the cause.

Other information on problems with supermarkets

Foundation for Local Food Initiatives (f3)
PO Box 1234, Bristol, BS99 2PG Tel: 0845 458 9525
Web: www.localfood.org.uk

New Economics Foundation
6-8 Cole Street, London, SE1 4YH Tel: 020 7089 2800
Web: www.neweconomics.org

Women's Environmental Network (WEN).
PO Box 30626, London, E1 1TZ.
Tel: 0207 481 9004. Fax: 0207 481 9144 Email: info@wen.org.uk
Web: www.wen.org.uk
campaign on food issues generally currently have a 'Taste of a Better Future' campaign, a network of organic food growing groups for ethnic minority women, developing growing and composting skills.

Christian Aid.
PO Box 100, London, SE1 7RT.
Tel: 0207 523 2418.
Web: www.oneworld.org/christian_aid
March 1999 -'Taking stock: trying to get UK supermarkets to be more ethical'
'The Global Supermarket'; 'Change at the Checkout'
November 2001 -'Trade for Life - Making trade work for poor people' - looking at broader issues of WTO and structures.
"Change The Rules". Campaign for Fair Trade and Supermarket responsibility towards third world workers.

People and Planet
51 Union Street, Oxford, Oxon, OX4 1JP. Tel: 01865 245678.
Web: www.peopleandplanet.org
A student based network campaign with Christian Aid on fair trade, agro-exports, food poverty and food miles. Promoting alternatives to students and aim to put consumer pressure on retailers. Produce education pack called "Selling out - The True cost of supermarkets" (see publication list).


8. PLANNING EXPERTS

Sympathetic planning experts who may be able to advise campaigns:

Campaign for Planning Sanity. Chris Maile on 0161 959 0999. www.onlincam.freeserve.co.uk
Local community support for adverse planning and development

Planning Aid. c/o Royal Town Planning Institute, 41 Botolph Lane, London, EC3R 8DL. Tel: 0207 636 9107.
Network of experienced planners and others such as architects and legal professions which provides advice to individuals and groups on planning related matters. Advice is given to those who cannot afford to pay consultant fees. Regional offices across Britain.

Michael Parks, 315 Trinity Road, Wandsworth, London SW18 3SL.Tel: 0208 874 3342.
Self employed urban planner, involved in the planning for real exercise with Gargoyle Wharf Community Action Group who fought against a supermarket in Wandsworth, London. Experience with regeneration proposals, fighting roads etc.

James Shorten, Faculty of the Built Environment, University of the West of England, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS16 1QY. Tel: (W) 0117 965 6261 x3224. E-mail j.shorten@uwe.ac.uk
General advice on planning and development issues.

Paul Disney: Lower Heltor Farm, Bridford, Devon, EX6 7EH.
Tel: 01647 440138. Fax: 01647 440047
Transport impact assessment, especially PPG6, PPG13 and by-pass traffic.

9. LEGAL ADVISERS

Harjinder Bahra, & Sarah E. Dobbyn, Environmental Legal and Mediation Service (ELMS)
Temple Chambers, 3-7 Temple Avenue, London, EC4Y 0DB.
Tel: 0171 583 8008. Fax: 0171 583 8007. E-mail: hsbahra@dircon.co.uk
A network of lawyers who offer help on pro-bono basis (free) for groups without legal aid. Will represent at public inquiries and mediate between developers and groups. Can help with finding a solicitor. ELMS organises service in court. Community groups should be willing to help with photocopying costs, etc.

Environmental Law Foundation
Glyn Turner, Administrator, Kings College London, Atkins Buildings South (128), Campden Hill Road, London W8 7AH tel & fax 020 7 333 4100.
The Environmental Law Foundation (ELF) is a non-profit company with a network of advisers with legal, academic and environmental expertise, who can represent community groups involved in environmental disputes. Financial support for legal advice is not yet available although planned for the future. Meanwhile certain preliminary work can be undertaken free of charge.

Earthrights Solicitors
Contact: John Dunkley, Little Orchard, School Lane, Molehill Green, Takeley, Essex. CM22 6JP e-mail: earthrights@gn.apc.org Tel: 07071 225011
Environmental law, landrights, rights of way, squatters' rights and planning, defending possession proceedings. Can give full advice on planning law.

10. PUBLICATIONS

John Beasley. How to stop supermarket developments. Available from OTDOGS (for contact details see section 7).

Competition Commission Report on Supermarkets (2000)
http://www.competition-commission.org.uk/reports/446super.htm#full
This report provides many useful references particularly:
Chapter 12: Land and Planning Issues
12.3: Planning Policy for supermarkets
12.43 Determinations by local authorities
12.51 Local planning authorities' reasons for refusal
12.53 Appeals and called in applications
Chapter 13: Social and Environmental Issues
13.2: Recommendations from the DETR report 1998 ' The Impact of Large Foodstores on Market Towns'.

Corporate Watch (for contact details see section 7)
'What's wrong with Supermarkets?', Corporate Watch (2002)

Tesco corporate profile. Corporate Watch (2001)
http://www.corporatewatch.org

'What's Wrong with Tesco?' Corporate Watch Issue 3 1997. Available from Corporate Watch (£1 unwaged, £1.50 waged, £2.50 organisations)

Council for the Protection of Rural England
Publications:
Campaigners' guide to local plans (April 1992) £10.00 (Plus £1.00 post & packing)
Campaigners' guide to public inquiries and planning appeals -This comprehensive guide provides invaluable advice and campaign tips for dealing with planning appeals and preparing and presenting evidence at public inquiries. 80pp. (February 1997) £10.00 (Plus £1.00 post & packing).
Departure applications & call-ins -Campaign guidance to help you ask the Secretary of State to call in controversial planning applications and identify departure applications, i.e. those which contradict an agreed development plan. 20pp. (February 2001) £3-00

Responding to planning applications - This booklet helps you use the planning system to defend your local environment against damaging development. 28pp. (Revised & Reissued June 2001.) Free with 1st or 2nd Class stamped A5 SAE

Sustainable local foods-aims to reconnect consumers with farmers and producers. It helps to empower the public to make informed choices about the food they eat and the way it is produced and distributed; to gain recognition of the benefits of a local food economy and encourage more support for local food initiatives. 12 pp. (September 2001)£3-50
For more information or to order call CPRE Publications on 020 7976 6433
(Mon-Fri, 9.30am-5.30pm).

DETR The Impact of Large Foodstores on Market Towns and District Centres. 1998 http://www.planning.detr.gov.uk/foodstores/index.htm

DTLR Planning Policy Guidance Note 6 Town Centres and Retail Development http://www.planning.dtlr.gov.uk/ppg/ppg6/index.htm

Ethical Consumer
Ethical Consumer Issue 71
June/July 2001 Research Supplement on Supermarkets (£3)
Ethical Consumer Issue 44 December 1996 report on Supermarkets.(£3)
Available from ECRA Publishing Ltd, Freepost, Nww978A, Manchester M15 9EP tel 0161 226 2929 e-mail: mail@ethicalconsumer.org web:www.ethicalconsumer.org

House of Commons Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs Committee Second Report: Environmental Impact of Supermarket Competition, 2000 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199900/cmselect/cmenvtra/120/12002.htm

Tim Lang and Hugh Raven. From Market to Hypermarket: Food Retailing in Britain, vol 24 No 4 July/August 1994 pp124-129 The Ecologist, Unit 18, Chelsea Wharf, 15 Lots Road, London, SW10 0QJ Tel: 0207 351 3578 Fax:0207 351 3617 e-mail:sally@theecologist.org web: www.theecologist.org

George Monbiot.
Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain. MacMillan, 2000.
George Monbiot - www.monbiot.com has a substantial section on supermarkets.

Lucy Nichol.
How can planning help the local food economy? A guide for planners. School of Planning, Oxford Brookes University, 2001.
Available for £4 from Cassandra Blake 01865 483491

Bill Quinn.
How Walmart is destroying America and What You Can Do About It. Ten Speed Press, 1998

Hugh Raven & Tim Lang, with Caroline Dumonteil.
Off Our Trolleys. Institute for Public Policy Research, 1995.

Selling Out - The true cost of supermarkets. Available from People and Planet (Free) (for contact details see section 7).

SUSTAIN (for contact details see section 7)
Supermarket Briefing Sheets: How to Campaign on Supermarket Developments - Information and advice for residents, shopkeepers and community groups on tackling the process and issues involved in planning permission applications for out or edge-of-town supermarkets. 1996 Price £3.00
Eating Oil (2001). Includes lots of statistics on food miles and why local /regional food systems are best.
A Battle in Store: A discussion of the social impact of the major UK supermarkets. (2001)

Wye Farmers Market : Richard Boden
c/o WyeCycle, 14 Scotton Street, Wye, Ashford, Kent TN25 5BZ Tel: 01233-813298.
Richard has produced a publication '10 ways to create a better world - don't shop at supermarkets'. Richard is happy to offer advice to anyone interested in setting up a farmers market.

Revised and Updated by Corporate Watch and The Land is Ours February 2002