This directory was first compiled in 1998 to offer help, contacts and
details of useful publications to people fighting supermarket developments.
It was widely welcomed by campaigners. With the continuing expansion
of supermarkets and the arrival of Wal-Mart in the UK, we felt the directory
needed updating. The directory is not definitive but gives details of
a selection of past, present, successful and not so successful local
campaigns. All the contacts listed are happy to share experiences and
discuss tactics/strategies with local groups campaigning against supermarkets.
Alongside the directory of local campaigns are national contacts and
resources and a brief overview of supermarket expansion policies and
of the planning regulations which apply to them.
2. SUPERMARKET EXPANSION
Since the 1950s food retailing in the UK has undergone a radical shift
from high street and district centres comprised of specialist food shops;
grocers, greengrocers, bakers and butchers to the dominance of food
retailing by the 'big four' supermarkets: Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury and
Safeway. This long term restructuring has accelerated with the huge
increase in out of town superstores. The number of superstores increased
from 457 to 1,102 between 1986 and 1997, whilst eight independent shops
have closed every day during the same period. The number of convenience
stores has declined by almost 40% in the eleven years from 1986 to 1997.
A supermarket is a self-service grocery store that sells food, beverages
and other goods. It is usually located on urban high streets or in shopping
malls, covering an area of between 4 - 12,000 ft. During the last 10
- 15 years, new branches have opened on the edge of towns or out of
A superstore is a retail outlet specialising in grocery sales, although
not exclusively selling food of between 25 - 50, 000 ft.
A hypermarket, is a superstore over 50,000 ft. These are always out
of town or on large out of town complexes, and offer extensive car parks.
They offer a larger range of non-food products, such as DIY and garden
products and electrical goods. French and US hypermarkets can be around
Definitions from Keynote Report on Supermarkets and Superstores, 2001.
Whilst all the supermarket multiples threaten local communities and
the local economy, different supermarkets seem to be pursuing different
strategies. Tesco and Sainsbury have shifted their expansion programmes
to focus on smaller format inner city stores such as Tesco 'Metro' and
Sainsbury's 'Local'. Somerfield has the largest number of stores, but
these are mainly smaller and sited in town centres. They have been selling
off their larger stores in order to concentrate on small neighbourhood
stores. Asda, on the other hand, whilst refurbishing and extending many
of its stores, is also planning to build 20 new out of town Asda Wal-Mart
supercentres of around 90,000 ft. Wal-Mart, which acquired Asda in 1999
for 6.7 billion pounds, is the world's largest retailer and is well
known for its strategy of destroying the economic and social fabric
of small towns all across America by building giant out of town superstores
and selling goods at rock bottom prices.
Number of Supermarkets and Superstores 2000
Marks and Spencer 297
We can expect to see further consolidation in food retailing over the
next few years as the supermarket giants continue to battle for domination
of the global market. Expansion across Europe and the US is the way
supermarkets believe they will keep profitable and stay competitive,
either through acquiring foreign chains, or by moving in. In the UK,
along with Wal-Mart, the giant German discounters, Aldi and Lidl, have
already moved in as has the Danish chain, Netto. Both Carrefour, the
French multinational and the largest grocery retailer in Europe, and
Dutch multinational Royal Ahold have stated that they would like to
enter (in Carrefour's case, return to) the UK grocery sector.
Supermarkets are increasingly focusing on non-grocery goods which will
impact on the size and siting of supermarket developments. Tesco is
already the largest petrol retailer in the country, and all the supermarkets
are eagerly becoming chemists, news agents, DIY and garden suppliers,
travel agents, banks
in fact taking over the entire high street.
The success, or otherwise, of internet shopping could affect supermarket
expansion plans. Internet shopping may mean less people buying directly
from supermarkets, but would also mean more lorries on the road delivering
from dedicated distribution centres or from the stores themselves.
3. SUPERMARKET PLANNING LEGISLATION
That the growth of out of town retailing has been damaging to town centre
and local economies, damaging to the countryside and has increased traffic
is clear. This damage was recognised by the Conservative Government
in 1993 when it introduced Planning Policy Guidance Note 13 on Transport
(PPG13) which required the consideration of locally accessible shops
in planning decisions. The Conservatives also revised Planning Policy
Guidance Note 6 on Town Centres and Retail Development (PPG6) to protect
town centres against out of town developments, firstly in 1993 and then
again in 1996 when they required local authorities to use a 'sequential
approach', and to only grant planning permission for out of town sites
where there were no viable alternatives firstly in the town and secondly
on the edge of town.
In 2000, the Environment Committee of the House of Commons slammed the
Office of Fair Trading (OFT) proposals to relax planning controls on
supermarkets. It also condemned the OFT for referring supermarket planning
matters to the Competition Commission without taking evidence from planning
experts or the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions.
The Environment Committee said relaxing planning controls would be disastrous
and called for supermarkets to be built on town centre sites to revitalise
communities and curb traffic congestion due to out-of-town shopping
malls. In historic towns, it called for supermarkets to be sited on
the edge-of-town, rather than damaging the character of town centres.
Whilst the new planning guidance has not prevented all new store development,
there has been a sharp decline in new planning approvals for out of
town superstores. The Labour government has so far continued to uphold
and even strengthen the guidance.
Down but not out
The supermarkets will of course continue to lobby for out-of-town stores
as this is where they can get the economies of scale to support their
profits and the acres of free car parking which gives them an enormous
competitive advantage over city centre stores. Whether they have Tony
Blair's sympathetic ear is not clear yet. He met supermarket lobbyists
before the 1997 General Election (the meeting was set up by Lord Sainsbury)
and after the Election met Wal-Mart representatives before the US giant
took over Asda. Planning policy was apparently discussed on both occasions.
But, at least so far, there has been no change.
In the meanwhile the supermarkets have responded to the tougher planning
regulations by development at both ends of the size spectrum - by adding
extensions to their current out of town stores and developing new smaller
formats in towns; city centre convenience stores (Tesco Metro and Sainsbury's
Central), small superstores (Tesco Compact), neighbourhood convenience
stores (Sainsbury's Local) and petrol forecourt shops (Tesco Express,
Out of town development may have slowed but all supermarket developments
pose a threat to local communities. Whether they are on the high street,
in shopping malls or out of town, they are attempting to bring what
the entire high street can offer, under one roof, thus compromising
the economic viability of small independent retailers, increasing traffic
and destroying the social role that small shops provide in bringing
together communities and fostering trust about the products provided.
In December 2001, the Government released a planning 'green' paper outlining
new proposals for planning legislation. Whilst it seems as though New
Labour's agenda is to fast track major infrastructure development projects,
changing rules for public inquiries on new roads, nuclear power plants,
airports and the like, it seems unlikely that it will affect supermarkets.
What does clearly favour supermarkets is the green papers' firm refusal
to consider third party rights of appeal, despite widespread support
for this and the fact that the lack of such a right appears to contradict
article 6 of the Human Rights Act. Currently, only the applicant i.e.
the supermarket, can appeal against a planning decision if it goes against
them. Objectors have no right to appeal. This more than anything would
have given clout to objectors against supermarket proposals.
4. USEFUL TIPS FOR YOUR CAMPAIGN
Economic impact of out of town stores
The following may be useful to persuade your local planner that out
of town stores, whether urban or rural can be opposed under planning
policy guidance if they can be shown to damage the local economy.
"Council planners can resist granting permission for developments
that will undermine the local economy. While small independent shops
often stock local products, supermarkets rarely do, and their centralised
distribution systems mean that 'local' products may be transported hundreds
of miles to depots and then back to local superstores. Research by the
DETR (The Impact of Large Foodstores on Market Towns and District Centres,
1998) and the Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs Committee
(Second Report: Environmental Impact of Supermarket Competition, 2000)
found that new out-of-centre supermarkets have a serious adverse impact
on existing independent shops in villages and town centres, resulting
in their decline and sometimes their closure. The ramifications will
go beyond the shopkeeper and have a negative effect on the local rural
Resisting new supermarkets on this basis could be justified with reference
to Planning Policy Guidance Note 6: Town Centres and Retail Development
(1996) paragraph 1.16, which states that proposals for new out-of-centre
superstores should be judged not only on their likely impact on the
vitality of town centres, but also on the impact on the rural economy.
However a recent survey by the Planning Policies Research Group has
found that few planning authorities are using this tool, perhaps because
there is no established methodology for measuring the impact on the
rural economy. Any assessment of this should include the impact on local
food producers; both those that sell directly to the public through
farm shops and farmers' markets, and those who rely on local shops to
sell their produce."
Extracted from Lucy Nichol's paper 'How can planning help the local
food economy? A guide for planners' (2001).
Office of Fair Trading inquiries into the siting of new stores
Further useful ammunition to support campaigns against supermarket development
comes from the Competition Commission report on Supermarkets (2001)
which made the following recommendation: "The CC proposed that
the Office of Fair Trading assess whether particular parties should
be allowed to develop large new stores on competition grounds framed
in terms of drive time between stores e.g. if a supermarket wished to
build a new store over a certain size (suggested 1,000sqm) within 15
minutes drive time of one of their existing stores or significantly
extend the grocery retailing of one of their existing stores, they would
be required to apply to the Director General of the Office of Fair Trading
5. LAUNCHING YOUR CAMPAIGN
Stage 1 Know your enemy - check Supermarket's own web sites,
as well as the Corporate Watch web site for more information (see section
Stage 2 Build local support - contact traders, residents, environmental
and community groups.
Use the local press and distribute leaflets.
You might want to contact some of the groups listed in Section 7 for
ideas for text for leaflets and other communications.
Stage 3 Be clear about the planning process - when are the committee
meetings; who are the committee members and which might be sympathetic
to what arguments; which officers deal with the application; can you
influence the full council meeting? It helps to draw a diagram of who
makes decisions at various stages, and how they can be influenced.
Often strong local opposition to a development, together with sound
arguments, can persuade the planning committee to reject it.
Stage 4 All too often the supermarket developers will go to appeal,
and possibly a public enquiry. They don't like to be told 'no' and will
use their financial muscle to get the best lawyers. If it gets to this
stage you will probably need expert representation and advice - some
useful planning and legal contacts are listed in sections 8 and 9.
Stage 5 If the store does get through, pay attention to the detail
- there have been several cases where stores have been designed specifically
to allow expansion at some later date (often despite assurances to the
contrary). Also, it might just be possible that even if the store gets
permission, the access roads could be refused, making the store not
Another useful tactic which can be used throughout the campaign is non-violent
direct action. This has been effective in stopping other developments
around the country. It gives a community the chance to impose direct
financial costs on the corporation that has ignored its views. An early
threat of direct action might also put the developer off, draw some
unwelcome publicity for the corporation and boost your support among
the local community. Note that once one store has a foothold in a town
or community, its rivals will be watching very closely, eager to pounce
too. Towns rarely stop at just one major store. So even if direct action
doesn't stop the store it's targeting, the next developer is unlikely
to want to face that kind of opposition. Get in touch with your local
Earth First! Group -see section 7
Finally, enjoy your campaign. Good luck!
6. LOCAL CAMPAIGNS AGAINST SUPERMARKETS
Conwy Friends of the Earth
Contact: Christopher Draper on 01492 547590
Conwy FoE have been campaigning against plans to move a local school
on to a contaminated waste site and build an Wal-Mart/Asda store on
the existing school ground. Asda have just being granted planning permission
despite fierce local opposition including the Parents Group. Conwy FoE
claim that Wal-Mart were behind the school moving and that the Council
have constantly misled the public and councillors. Despite council claims
the Environment Agency, Wales does not support the scheme. The Children's
Commissioner for Wales has stated that the school move 'should not go
ahead'. FoE and the Parents Group are now asking the Minister for the
Environment for Wales for a revocation and to call in the application.
A decision was due by the end of December 2001.
Walsall Friends of the Earth
Contact: Gerald Kells, 55 Folly House Lane, Walsall, WS1 3EL. Tel: 01922
Gerald presented the case against ASDA at a Public Enquiry in mid
1997, and has lots of experience of public enquiries generally (he has
done 6 or 7, some of them successfully, including against the expansion
of Merry Hill shopping centre). He can advise groups about public enquiries,
the planning process and campaign strategy. He is happy to give advice
over the phone or send his proof of evidence for the ASDA application.
He is currently campaigning against Tesco plans to replace their town
centre store, which serves people without cars, with a smaller Tesco
Metro, and build a big new store on the edge of town. Opposition say
it is 'out of town' but the council at the public enquiry in September
2001 argued that it was 'in town' because the site was included in the
town plan. They are currently awaiting the outcome of a public enquiry
held in September 2001.
Chesterfield and North Derbyshire Friends of the Earth
Contact: Simon Reading -email email@example.com
Chesterfield FoE are backing up the local Council which turned down
an application for a new Asda store. It went to Appeal over the definition
of the site as 'in town' or 'out of town'. This was because although
it is close to the town centre it is only accessible via a dual carriageway.
The site is also zoned industrial land and the council didn't want it
re-zoned. As a remit of the appeal, a public enquiry was held in July
2001. Currently awaiting outcome.
Tyzack Site Action Group
Contact: Jenny - Tel: 0114 258 7073 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
In November 1998, the Council refused planning permission for a
Morrison's superstore, and the developers lodged an appeal. In August
1999 they submitted a completely new application for a big health and
fitness club which also included a medium sized supermarket. This proposal
still had the same traffic implications as the previous one, but did
include offices and light industry. In February 2001, the Council gave
permission for the development, but had to go to the Secretary of State
because another application for a supermarket in a more favourable location
had been submitted. The developers came back with the same proposal
but minus the supermarket and in July 2001 were given outline planning
Contact: Felicity Norman, The Folly, Luston, Nr Leominster, HR6 0BX.
Tel: 01568 780886.
A Safeway store was built in Leominster in 1993-4. Research by the
DETR, The Impact of Large Foodstores on Market Towns and District Centres,
published in 1998 revealed that when Safeway opened the store, many
of the town's small shops promptly lost 30 per cent of their trade.
A last minute campaign tried, and failed, to raise local opposition
to the store. Local traders took little interest at the time, but since
the store was built they have really felt the impact and a successful
loyalty card scheme "Loyal to Leominster" was launched to
support local businesses. A good example of campaigning against out
of town developments and in support of local traders in town centres
even after the supermarket has been built.
Contact: BUDD - Brighton Urban Design and Development & Stop
Ben Messer, Sara Bragg or Keith Taylor, BUDD co-ordinators, Tel: 01273
324198 / 681166 / 291165 respectively: email Ben on Ben@clevel.co.uk
BUDD formed in early 1997 to provide a forum for debate on a proposed
development of the station site, focused around a Sainsbury's superstore
and car park. BUDD aimed to raise awareness of the implications of the
development; to explore community-related development options and to
lobby the local planning authority. The Council was persuaded - in part
by BUDD's efforts - to refuse the planning application, and after an
extended public enquiry in 1998, its decision was upheld by the Secretary
of State. The Council then embarked on a public consultation process
with a view to drawing up a new Planning Brief for the site. (Previously
there was no such formal document). 500 people attended a Community
Planning Event in October 1999, and overwhelmingly opposed any major
retail uses (with associated car parking) for the site.
However, it soon became clear that the Council was reluctant to continue
opposition to Sainsbury's, which was intent on putting in a further
application. It thus organised a Working Group, with representation
skewed to the interests of the landowner, Railtrack and Sainsbury's,
which in time duly delivered a Planning Brief that explicitly allowed
for a supermarket (only a few metres short of the official definition
of 'superstore') on the site. This effectively ruled out more community-related
and sustainable development options.
Meanwhile Railtrack, Sainsbury's and other developers formed the 'New
England Consortium', and delivered a new application in Sept. 2001 for
a more mixed-use development including housing, hotels, language schools
as well as a supermarket with 200 space car park. The public has continued
to express major opposition, not least because the proposal does not
address longstanding concerns about the effects of the supermarket on
smaller local retailers, on traffic and pollution, on the character
of the area, or adequately address the need for affordable housing locally.
However, with the Planning Brief in place, the struggle to oppose it
will be harder this time.
Westbury Residents Action Group (WRAG).
Contact: Denise Barwell Tel: 0117 9508012
WRAG was formed in May 2001 after canvassing local residents and finding
overwhelming local opposition to the development of a new Sainsbury's
store. Westbury-on-Trym is an urban village currently well served by
small local retailers and a small Somerfield. There are at least seven
supermarkets within approx. four miles, including a very large Wal-Mart.
The land in question is designated in the Local Plan as 'open space
for recreational and leisure purposes'. The land is made up of individually
owned allotments, some of which are subject to restrictive covenants.
Westbury-on-Trym is a conservation area. Sainsbury's have applied for
planning permission to demolish three houses and to build a two storey
store with a sales area of 15,000 square feet and an extension to an
existing car park. The local planning officer asked for an environmental
impact assessment several months ago that has not yet been supplied
by Sainsbury's. There is a church dating to the Saxon period on the
fringe of the proposed development, and the oldest inhabited house in
Bristol is alongside the site. This is also an interdenominational house
of prayer and meditation. There has already been some local media coverage
regarding the affect on this house of a supermarket car park at the
end of the garden. WRAG are currently undertaking a car survey.
CAASH - Campaign Against Another Supermarket in Hadleigh
Contact: John Bloomfield, Hadleigh Society Tel: 01473 822063
The Campaign Against Another Supermarket in Hadleigh,(CAASH) was
successful in stopping a Tesco superstore on the edge of the centre
of Hadleigh, Suffolk.
The Hadleigh Society
and other like-minded bodies teamed up in April 1999 to oppose proposals
from two supermarkets to build on the site. In October 1999, people
voted in a referendum following which the Town Council rejected the
Tesco application, whilst recommending that an application by Buyright
Stores should be approved. Carter Commercial's appeal was inevitable,
leading to the opening of a Public Enquiry in October. The weight of
evidence filled more than the three weeks allocated, and the conclusion
could not be scheduled until March 2001, two years after the proposal
was first aired. The Inspector's report recommended that both supermarket
proposals be refused. The Secretary of State has agreed and sent out
the formal letters turning down both Tesco's appeal and Buyright's application.
In summary, the Inspector accepted that the need for a supermarket was
proved but rejected the Tesco proposal on the grounds that the building
was of an unsuitable design: the demolition of 109 High Street and creation
of a wide entrance would not enhance the outstanding conservation area.
The proposed mono-pitched roof structure and high wall would be damaging
to the amenities of Sun Court, a grade II listed building. The Inspector
repeated in her report that the proposed building looked as if it had
been designed by Pinewood studios! The Inspector also considered that
the proposed road junction would create traffic problems and would not
be capable of enhancement. She was concerned that residents would suffer
from disturbance by traffic, and in particular, from the sound levels
produced by traffic at the access point. The Inspector's only significant
objection to the Buyright proposal was that the building of a supermarket
adjacent to the existing store would create a "one-stop" shopping
site from which few people would walk into the High Street. The local
shops might therefore suffer.
Top tips from the Hadleigh Society's campaign include:
· Prepare carefully - it took CAASH about a year to gather
· Rather than address the weaknesses in the application, look
at what they've left out. Someone with a good, cynical mind is
a great asset!
· Use a range of tactics. In Hadleigh, we used real cars
to stage the council's projected traffic figures. This caused town centre
gridlock - what further proof was needed! Another tactic was to build
a model of the development to illustrate the inappropriateness of site
and design. In Hadleigh, this included erecting scaffolding to illustrate
the height of building.
· Follow the rules to the letter with regard to the Planning
· Engage as many of your friends and colleagues in the
campaign e.g. use your Christmas Card list to ask your friends to write
to the District Council.
· Brief your District Councillors away from the Officers.
· If you get obscure and confusing replies from the company concerned,
this can be publicly exposed to the Inspector. I asked a simple
question about relative heights of buildings. After a few days I received
a letter with a supposed explanation. I got the proposer's 'expert'
to read this out, stating that I could not follow it. The proposer got
a real roasting for sending me misleading information that purported
to clarify, but blatantly did not.
Hither Green Heritage,
Contact: Douglas Earle, 144 Hither Green Lane, London SE13 6QA.
Tel: 0208 244 3778.
Tesco bought the Hither Green Hospital for £5m, and sought
planning permission to redevelop it, although there were already several
supermarkets nearby. The campaign against it focused on heritage issues
(preserving the old buildings and their setting), traffic, impact on
local shops and loss of trees. The application went to appeal in 1999
and was rejected by the Inspectorate. The main reason for rejection
was the impact it would have on the local town centre.
SCAMROD (Sherringham Campaign Against Major Retail Over Development),
Contact: Reg Grimes, 33 Beeston Road, Sherringham, Norfolk, NR26 8EJ.
Tel: 01263 824343.
The campaign is fighting two major superstores: Tesco (out of town)
and Budgens on the edge of town. SCAMROD would prefer an in town site.
Planning applications are in and SCAMROD have submitted objections.
North Cotswold CPRE
Contact: c/o Lynn Greenwold, Digbeth, Digbeth St, Stow-on-the-Wold,
Cheltenham, Glos. GL54 1BN Tel: 01451 870 163.
The group fought an edge-of-town Tesco development in a small market
town, and lost - the store opened in Autumn 1997. The Planning Committee
refused permission three times, but council officers were in favour,
and took it to full council, who pushed it through, first changing the
local development plan. The campaigners managed to change some of the
detail e.g. height, visual obtrusiveness. But despite agreements to
the contrary, the campaigners are worried that Tesco intends to expand
the store (it has been built so as to allow extension), and add a petrol
station in the future.
Contact: Mr Davies, 4 Kings Road, Llandovery, Carmarthenshire, SA20
0PU. Tel: 01550 720 269.
In the late 1990's there were plans for a store and petrol station on
a green field site at edge of this small market town (2,000 population).
Local traders and residents were concerned about the damage it would
do to the town centre. The retail impact assessment carried out for
Tesco was felt to be highly inaccurate, so Camarthenshire County Council
commissioned its own. Currently there is a revised application for a
central town location which some retailers feel might encourage more
people to shop in the town. An environmental impact assessment (flood
prevention scheme) was needed and the retailer had to pay half the cost,
approx. £600,000. In June 2001 Tesco withdrew their application
because they felt there wasn't sufficient parking in the scheme for
the edge of town development.
Contacts Roberta Owen, Friends of the Earth Flintshire Tel: 01352
710714 Email: email@example.com
David McKnight, Youth Coalition Gogledd Cymru Tel: 01352 711416
Only a few months ago, a proposal from Tesco to build an out of
town superstore in Flintshire was rejected by Flintshire County Council
on grounds that new out-of-town stores in Q'ferry and Broughton have
already damaged town centres in the county. Now Tesco have made a new
proposal to develop an out-of-town store and petrol station in Holywell.
Friends of the Earth Flintshire and Youth Coalition Gogledd Cymru are
working together to develop strategies to (a) fight Tesco's proposals
to build yet another out-of-town superstore, and (b) highlight alternative
ways to nurture a sustainable and fair local economy.
7. GENERAL ADVICE
For campaigning against supermarket developments
94 White Lion Street, London, N1 9PF
Tel: 0207 837 1228 Fax: 0207 837 1141
A coalition of farming, organic sector, environmental and conservation,
development, animal welfare and consumer organisations working together
to research and promote sustainable agriculture.
Friends of the Earth
26-28 Underwood Street, London, N1 7JQ.
Tel: 0207 490 1555. Fax: 0207 490 0881.
Local Groups co-ordinator- Fiona Roberts: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Friends of the Earth is one of the UK's largest environmental campaigning
groups. Contact them for more information on all aspects of local campaigning
and details of your local groups.
Jean Saunders of Swindon Friends of the Earth is an experienced campaigner
and happy to talk to other campaigners: Email:email@example.com
tel:01793 783 040
16B Cherwell Street,Oxford OX4 1BG, UK
Tel +44 (0) 1865 791 391
Researches and exposes corporate corruption. Website has profiles of
companies and campaign ideas. Also publishes a bi-monthly newsletter
and email news updates. It also acts as an information service to support,
strengthen and initiate grassroots campaigns against large companies.
The UK Food Industry is currently a major focus for research.
OTDOGS - Opposition to Destruction of Open Green Spaces
c/o John Beasley, 6 Everthorpe Rd, London, SE15 4DA.
Tel: 0208 693 9412.
Active in fighting supermarket applications in sensitive areas. Went
to Tesco AGM to ask questions about their practices, also to Sainsburys.
Has produced "Save Green Spaces from Destruction by food giants:
a practical guide to local action." 1994. (£3.40) post free.
Gives advice over the telephone and in writing.
John Beasley would be interested to hear from people who strongly suspect
that money has been paid to encourage planning permission to be granted.
The Land Is Ours - Chapter 7
Tel: 01460 249 204
A landrights movement for Britain, campaigning for access to the
land, its resources and the decision making processes affecting them.
Amongst its aims are derelict urban land to be used to meet basic social
needs affordable homes and free recreation, ahead of destructive luxuries
like superstores an exclusive housing). It also campaigns for sustainable
agriculture, protection and reclamation of common space, and a reform
of planning and public inquires.
Open Spaces Society
25a Bell St, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire RG9 2BA.
Tel: 01491 573535. Web: www.oss.org.uk
Can advise on Commons and open spaces under threat.
Trusts - national office.
The Kiln, Waterside, Mather Road, Newark, NG24 1WT.
Tel: 01636 677 711. Fax: 01636 670001
A network of charitable trusts working to conserve local wildlife
and wild places. Phone the national office for details of your county
Trust for help and advice on how to protect the wildlife.
23 Saville Row, London, W1S 2ET.
Tel: 0207 973 3000. Fax: 0207 973 3430.
A Government organisation who will advise on archaeological and cultural
Council for the
Protection of Rural England (CPRE)
Warwick House, 25 Buckingham Palace Road, London, SW1W OPP.
Tel: 0207 976 6433. Fax: 0207 976 6373.
A national charity that helps people to protect their local countryside
where there is threat, to enhance where there is opportunity, and to
keep it beautiful, productive and enjoyable for everyone.
There are branches in every county and 43 local groups. At any on time
numerous local groups are involved in campaigning against new supermarkets.
Contact CPRE to find out your nearest group.The organisation produces
a number of guides on planning, see publications in section 10
Council for British Archaeology
Bowes Morrell House, 111 Walmgate, York, Y01 9WA.
Tel: 01904 671417
National pressure and campaign group working with all aspects of
archaeology and cultural heritage. Will offer advice.
Rescue: The British Archaeological Trust
15a Bull Plain, Hertford, Hertfordshire, G14 1DX.
Tel: 01992 553377.
An independent charity promoting archaeological interests in Britain
and seeks to maintain the position of archaeology as a vital part of
our nations cultural life
Earth First! Action Update
Tel: 01603 612 265
Publishes the monthly update of non-violent direct-action and contacts
list of Earth First! groups. Useful if your campaign is considering
non-violent direct-action to highlight the cause.
Other information on problems with supermarkets
Local Food Initiatives (f3)
PO Box 1234, Bristol, BS99 2PG Tel: 0845 458 9525
New Economics Foundation
6-8 Cole Street, London, SE1 4YH Tel: 020 7089 2800
Women's Environmental Network (WEN).
PO Box 30626, London, E1 1TZ.
Tel: 0207 481 9004. Fax: 0207 481 9144 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
campaign on food issues generally currently have a 'Taste of a Better
Future' campaign, a network of organic food growing groups for ethnic
minority women, developing growing and composting skills.
PO Box 100, London, SE1 7RT.
Tel: 0207 523 2418.
March 1999 -'Taking stock: trying to get UK supermarkets to be more
'The Global Supermarket'; 'Change at the Checkout'
November 2001 -'Trade for Life - Making trade work for poor people'
- looking at broader issues of WTO and structures.
"Change The Rules". Campaign for Fair Trade and Supermarket
responsibility towards third world workers.
People and Planet
51 Union Street, Oxford, Oxon, OX4 1JP. Tel: 01865 245678.
A student based network campaign with Christian Aid on fair trade, agro-exports,
food poverty and food miles. Promoting alternatives to students and
aim to put consumer pressure on retailers. Produce education pack called
"Selling out - The True cost of supermarkets" (see publication
8. PLANNING EXPERTS
Sympathetic planning experts who may be able to advise campaigns:
Campaign for Planning Sanity. Chris Maile on 0161 959 0999. www.onlincam.freeserve.co.uk
Local community support for adverse planning and development
Planning Aid. c/o Royal Town Planning Institute, 41 Botolph Lane,
London, EC3R 8DL. Tel: 0207 636 9107.
Network of experienced planners and others such as architects and legal
professions which provides advice to individuals and groups on planning
related matters. Advice is given to those who cannot afford to pay consultant
fees. Regional offices across Britain.
Michael Parks, 315 Trinity Road, Wandsworth, London SW18 3SL.Tel:
0208 874 3342.
Self employed urban planner, involved in the planning for real exercise
with Gargoyle Wharf Community Action Group who fought against a supermarket
in Wandsworth, London. Experience with regeneration proposals, fighting
James Shorten, Faculty of the Built Environment, University of
the West of England, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS16
1QY. Tel: (W) 0117 965 6261 x3224. E-mail email@example.com
General advice on planning and development issues.
Paul Disney: Lower Heltor Farm, Bridford, Devon, EX6 7EH.
Tel: 01647 440138. Fax: 01647 440047
Transport impact assessment, especially PPG6, PPG13 and by-pass traffic.
9. LEGAL ADVISERS
Harjinder Bahra, & Sarah E. Dobbyn, Environmental Legal and
Mediation Service (ELMS)
Temple Chambers, 3-7 Temple Avenue, London, EC4Y 0DB.
Tel: 0171 583 8008. Fax: 0171 583 8007. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A network of lawyers who offer help on pro-bono basis (free) for groups
without legal aid. Will represent at public inquiries and mediate between
developers and groups. Can help with finding a solicitor. ELMS organises
service in court. Community groups should be willing to help with photocopying
Environmental Law Foundation
Glyn Turner, Administrator, Kings College London, Atkins Buildings South
(128), Campden Hill Road, London W8 7AH tel & fax 020 7 333 4100.
The Environmental Law Foundation (ELF) is a non-profit company with
a network of advisers with legal, academic and environmental expertise,
who can represent community groups involved in environmental disputes.
Financial support for legal advice is not yet available although planned
for the future. Meanwhile certain preliminary work can be undertaken
free of charge.
Contact: John Dunkley, Little Orchard, School Lane, Molehill Green,
Takeley, Essex. CM22 6JP e-mail: email@example.com
Tel: 07071 225011
Environmental law, landrights, rights of way, squatters' rights and
planning, defending possession proceedings. Can give full advice on
John Beasley. How to stop supermarket developments. Available
from OTDOGS (for contact details see section 7).
Competition Commission Report on Supermarkets (2000)
This report provides many useful references particularly:
Chapter 12: Land and Planning Issues
12.3: Planning Policy for supermarkets
12.43 Determinations by local authorities
12.51 Local planning authorities' reasons for refusal
12.53 Appeals and called in applications
Chapter 13: Social and Environmental Issues
13.2: Recommendations from the DETR report 1998 ' The Impact of Large
Foodstores on Market Towns'.
Corporate Watch (for contact details see section 7)
'What's wrong with Supermarkets?', Corporate Watch (2002)
Tesco corporate profile. Corporate Watch (2001)
'What's Wrong with Tesco?' Corporate Watch Issue 3 1997. Available
from Corporate Watch (£1 unwaged, £1.50 waged, £2.50
Council for the Protection of Rural England
Campaigners' guide to local plans (April 1992) £10.00 (Plus
£1.00 post & packing)
Campaigners' guide to public inquiries and planning appeals -This comprehensive
guide provides invaluable advice and campaign tips for dealing with
planning appeals and preparing and presenting evidence at public inquiries.
80pp. (February 1997) £10.00 (Plus £1.00 post & packing).
Departure applications & call-ins -Campaign guidance to help
you ask the Secretary of State to call in controversial planning applications
and identify departure applications, i.e. those which contradict an
agreed development plan. 20pp. (February 2001) £3-00
Responding to planning applications - This booklet helps you
use the planning system to defend your local environment against damaging
development. 28pp. (Revised & Reissued June 2001.) Free with 1st
or 2nd Class stamped A5 SAE
Sustainable local foods-aims to reconnect consumers with farmers and
producers. It helps to empower the public to make informed choices about
the food they eat and the way it is produced and distributed; to gain
recognition of the benefits of a local food economy and encourage more
support for local food initiatives. 12 pp. (September 2001)£3-50
For more information or to order call CPRE Publications on 020 7976
DETR The Impact of Large Foodstores on Market Towns and District
Centres. 1998 http://www.planning.detr.gov.uk/foodstores/index.htm
DTLR Planning Policy Guidance Note 6 Town Centres and Retail Development
Ethical Consumer Issue 71 June/July 2001 Research Supplement on
Ethical Consumer Issue 44 December 1996 report on Supermarkets.(£3)
Available from ECRA Publishing Ltd, Freepost, Nww978A, Manchester M15
9EP tel 0161 226 2929 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
House of Commons Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs Committee
Second Report: Environmental Impact of Supermarket Competition, 2000
Tim Lang and Hugh Raven. From Market to Hypermarket: Food Retailing
in Britain, vol 24 No 4 July/August 1994 pp124-129 The Ecologist,
Unit 18, Chelsea Wharf, 15 Lots Road, London, SW10 0QJ Tel: 0207 351
3578 Fax:0207 351 3617 e-mail:email@example.com
Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain. MacMillan, 2000.
George Monbiot - www.monbiot.com
has a substantial section on supermarkets.
How can planning help the local food economy? A guide for planners.
School of Planning, Oxford Brookes University, 2001.
Available for £4 from Cassandra Blake 01865 483491
How Walmart is destroying America and What You Can Do About It.
Ten Speed Press, 1998
Hugh Raven & Tim Lang, with Caroline Dumonteil.
Off Our Trolleys. Institute for Public Policy Research, 1995.
Selling Out - The true cost of supermarkets. Available from People
and Planet (Free) (for contact details see section 7).
SUSTAIN (for contact details see section 7)
Supermarket Briefing Sheets: How to Campaign on Supermarket Developments
- Information and advice for residents, shopkeepers and community
groups on tackling the process and issues involved in planning permission
applications for out or edge-of-town supermarkets. 1996 Price £3.00
Eating Oil (2001). Includes lots of statistics on food miles and why
local /regional food systems are best.
A Battle in Store: A discussion of the social impact of the major
UK supermarkets. (2001)
Wye Farmers Market : Richard Boden
c/o WyeCycle, 14 Scotton Street, Wye, Ashford, Kent TN25 5BZ Tel: 01233-813298.
Richard has produced a publication '10 ways to create a better world
- don't shop at supermarkets'. Richard is happy to offer advice to anyone
interested in setting up a farmers market.
Revised and Updated by Corporate Watch and The Land is Ours February