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Syngenta

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1. Summary

Syngenta is a Swiss agricultural company formed in 2000 from the agrochemical and seed businesses of Novartis, and the agrochemicals and biotechnology research divisions of AstraZeneca .1 Syngenta is the world’s second biggest player in agrochemicals and the third biggest seed producer.2 In 2002 the company had sales of $6.2bn.3 Syngenta currently sells GM crops in the US, Canada and Spain.4 Syngenta is one of the big three companies looking to commercialise GM crops in the UK in the near future. Syngenta has a relatively small stake in the commercialisation of the first round of GM crops in the UK. It has two varieties of GM sugar beet, developed in conjunction with Monsanto, which are awaiting approval for the UK national seed list.5 Of all the major agricultural biotechnology companies currently active in the UK, Syngenta have the biggest stake in sales of conventional seeds. If first generation GM crops are commercialised in the UK, Syngenta will be well placed to market both its own GM traits, and those of other companies, through its seeds division. Syngenta have carried out a small number of GM crop research trials in the UK including research into Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTS/traitor technology)6 and GM wheat.7 GM crops are a key part of Syngenta’s future and it has a strong interest in seeing them grown in the UK and Europe. It is heavily involved with a number of industry joint initiatives such as SCIMAC, ABC and CropGen (see overview briefing for details of each of these groups) designed to influence both the public and government on the issue of GM crops. So far Syngenta has avoided much of the public vilification that other GM companies, such as Monsanto, have attracted. It is perhaps the most successful GM crops company at co-opting the sustainable development agenda (through the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Development), and aligning itself with GM crops with perceived consumer benefits (eg Vitamin A or ‘Golden’ Rice8). Of all the major corporations involved in agricultural biotechnology, Syngenta, with part of its roots in Zeneca/ICI, has the strongest links to the UK. Key parts of its global infrastructure and personnel are based in the UK. Syngenta employees have a significant presence on the various boards and panels of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) the agency that allocates funding for academic research and training in the biosciences at UK universities and institutes9.


2. Company Structure and History

Company history10
Despite being a relatively ‘new’ company, Syngenta inherits the dubious legacies of both its parent companies, Novartis and AstraZeneca, promoters of GM technology and manufacturers of hazardous chemicals (paraquat and atrazine11). Syngenta was formed in November 2000, with the spin-off and merger of the agrochemical and seed division of Novartis (a Swiss lifesciences company formed in 1996 by the merger of two giant Swiss chemical/pharmaceutical companies Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz), and the agrochemicals and biotechnology research divisions of AstraZeneca (a British lifesciences company formed in 1999 by the acquisition of Astra AB, a Swedish pharmaceutical company, by Zeneca, a British chemicals and biotechnology company, formerly part of ICI). Astra Zeneca still exists as a pharmaceuticals company but has retained its seed interests, a 50% stake in Advanta, a joint venture with Dutch company Cosun.12 In the late 1990s Novartis and AstraZeneca were keen to establish themselves as ‘lifesciences’ companies and exploit the potential synergies between their pharmaceutical, chemical and agricultural sectors. Both invested heavily in acquiring seed and biotechnology companies. However, the strain of having to manage several very different sectors more than outweighed the savings made during basic research ‘synergies’.13 The Syngenta spin-off was a result of the poor performance of both Novartis’ and AstraZeneca’s agribusiness divisions during 1999, at least partly caused by the global backlash against GM crops. The creation of Syngenta has enabled parent companies Novartis and AstraZeneca to make considerable savings, and to rid themselves of their controversial agricultural biotechnology ventures. Syngenta has so far managed to avoid the public vilification that Monsanto attracted, and has been quietly getting on with developing some of the most controversial applications of agricultural biotechnology including genetic use restriction technologies (GURTs)/traitor technology

Involvement in GM crops
Each of Syngenta’s precursor companies has had a long involvement with agricultural products, beginning in the 1930s with manufacturing pesticides, from the mid 1970s onwards expanding into seed companies and from the mid 1980s beginning research into GM crops.
From the 1980s onwards the focus for the companies that merged to form Novartis (Ciba, Geigy and Sandoz) was engineering Bt toxin insect resistance into crops.14 The outcome of this research was Bt Maximiser/Knockout insect resistant maize, which was given approval for commercial growing in the US in 1995,15 and continues to be Syngenta’s most important own-brand GM product.
Zeneca (then ICI) began work on GM crops in the late 1970s. Its only widely marketed GM product to date has been the slow ripening tomato, which was the first GM food product to be marketed in the UK and Europe. The tomato was grown in the US and marketed in the UK as Safeway and Sainsbury’s own brand tomato puree. The product was launched in 1996 and withdrawn from the market in July 1999 due to public concerns over GM foods.16

3. Current Situation with GM crops

3.1 Global
Syngenta is one of the leaders in the field of GM crops, and GM crops form an integral part of its future plans. At present, though, it is important to remember that traditional agrochemicals still account for the majority of its global business. Based on figures for 2001, 85% of Syngenta’s income was from agrochemicals, whilst just 15% came from seed sales. Of this 15% only 17% (under 3% of total sales) came from the sale of GM crops.
Syngenta’s principle sales of GM crops are in the US and Canada. In the US it sells insect resistant maize, sweetcorn and forage maize using either its own Knockout technology or YieldGard technology under license from Monsanto.17 In maize and forage maize this is often combined with Liberty Link herbicide tolerance under license from Bayer CropScience. It also markets herbicide tolerant soya using Monsanto’s RoundUp Ready technology. Syngenta also sells its own version of glyphosate (RoundUp) called Touchdown for use on GM crops.
In Canada it markets insect resistant maize and forage maize using either its own Knockout technology or YieldGard technology, under license from Monsanto. In both maize and forage maize this is often combined with Liberty Link herbicide tolerance under license from Bayer CropScience.18
Syngenta are currently pushing for the commercialisation of BT insect resistant maize in South Africa.19
Syngenta are currently the only company to market a GM crop for commercial growing in the EU. In Spain it sells insect resistant maize utilising its own Knockout technology under the name Comba CB.

3.2 UK

UK field trials
Syngenta and its precursor companies Novartis and AstraZeneca/Zeneca and its subsidiaries (New Farm Crops, NK and Hilleshog) have carried out a number of field trials of GM crops in the UK. The majority of these trials have been for either herbicide tolerance or fungal resistance in oil seed rape, wheat, sugar/fodder beet and potatoes. Another notable focus for field trials was Zeneca’s trial of GM poplar trees modified for reduced lignin content for easier paper production. Both AstraZeneca/Zeneca and Syngenta have carried out a number of trials involving ‘gene switching technology’ (see box on GURTS) in oil seed rape, potatoes and tobacco. Syngenta have also conducting research into wheat modified for resistance to the fungus Fusarium.2021

Commercialisation of GM crops in the UK #77 and Monsanto
Since 1995 Syngenta (and its precursor companies) have conducted UK field trials of GM herbicide tolerant (RoundUp Ready) sugar beet. The focus of these trials has been several sugar beet varieties that incorporate a GM crop line known as #77 (or Event T9100152). This crop line has developed jointly in the UK by Monsanto and Syngenta.22 #77 varieties have been trialed for inclusion on the UK National Seed List, and as part of the government sponsored farmscale trial program. Syngenta currently have two #77 sugar beet varieties known as Pacific and Sturgeon that have completed national seed listing trials.23 In early February 2003 Syngenta and Monsanto made a joint application for EU wide marketing consent for all GM sugar beet varieties based on #77/Event T9100152.24 If its application is successful Syngenta will have removed one of the final obstacles that stands between it and the commercial growing of its first GM crop in the UK. In spring 2003 Syngenta planted a number of research and development trials of #77 sugar beet varieties, which further underlines its intention to commercialise this crop line. In March 2003 a spokesperson for Syngenta Seeds said that its GM herbicide tolerant sugar beet was unlikely to be available to farmers until 2008 at the earliest. The next few years will be used to develop new varieties based on the #77 event.25

UK seed companies
Of all the major agricultural biotechnology companies currently active in the UK Syngenta have the biggest stake in sales of conventional seeds. Syngenta owns the following UK/EU seed companies all of which are major players in their respective areas.

New Farm Crops: develop and market cereals including wheat and barley
NK (Northrup King): develop and sell fodder maize, oilseed rape and sunflower
Hilleshög: develop and market sugar beet
S&G: develop and market flowers and vegetable seeds
(for details of the UK locations of these seed companies see appendix 1).

If first generation GM crops are commercialised in the UK and EU, Syngenta will be well placed to market both its own GM traits, and those of other companies under license, through its seeds division.

3.3 Europe

EU Field Trials
Syngenta, its precursor companies Novartis (Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz) and AstraZeneca/Zeneca, and its subsidiaries (Mogen, NK, S&G and Hilleshog) have also carried out field trials of GM crops across the EU. Its trials have taken place in Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. The trials have predominantly focused on fodder/sugar beet, maize and potatoes modified for the following traits, either singularly or in combination: herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, fungal resistance and viral resistance.
(An overview of Syngenta’s EU and UK field trials can be found by doing a company search for Syngenta on the Genewatch UK online database at http://www.genewatch.org/GeneSrch/default.htm . More detailed information on Syngenta’s UK GM crop field trials can be found online on the DEFRA web site at http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/gm/pdf/exper.pdf . Further information on its EU GM crop trials can be found online at the Robert Koch Institute website http://www.rki.de/GENTEC/GENENG/GENTEC_E.HTM and the European Union Joint Research Centre web site at http://biotech.jrc.it/ )

EU Part C marketing consents
As well as making an application for the cultivation of #77/Event T9100152 sugar beet have also made an application for the cultivation of Bt 11 LibertyLink/insect resistant maize. 26

Central and eastern European field trials
A review of GM field trials in central and eastern European states indicates that Syngenta have been involved in field trials of RoundUp Ready sugar beet (Czech Republic and Poland); herbicide tolerant maize and sugar beet (Hungary); male sterile herbicide tolerant turnip (Hungary) and Bt potato (Ukraine).27

4. Future GM crops

The following table, taken from Syngenta’s website, summarises its current plans for new GM crops.28

Active Ingredient/Brand Product Line/Target Anticipated Launch
Plant Science Traits
Field Crops
Cotton Broad spectrum insect control Proprietary glyphosate tolerance 2004 2006/2007
Corn Second-generation broad spectrum insect control Proprietary glyphosate tolerance Broad lepidopteran control Corn rootworm control 2005/2006 2004/2005 2006/2007 2007
Oilseed Rape High-yield fully restored hybrids 2004
Sunflower Herbicide resistant hybrid 2004
Wheat Fusarium resistance for improved grain quality 2007
Whole Foods
Banana Longer life 2006
Feed and Crop Processing Applications
Microbial Phytase for Animal Feed More efficient animal feed for better weight gain and reduced pollution. 2003
Corn Phytase for Animal Feed More efficient animal feed for better weight gain and reduced pollution 2005/2006
Corn Amylase Reduce the costs of ethanol production 2007
Vegetables and Flowers
Tomatoes, lettuce, peppers, melons and cucumbers Viral and fungal disease resistance 2003/2004



As GM products have generally first been commercialised in the US it is worth looking at Syngenta's field trials there to get an idea of its immediate product pipeline. In the US Syngenta have made applications for field trials of GM barley, beet, cotton, maize, potato, rice, soya, tomatoes, watermelons and wheat. The majority of these crops have been modified for input traits, i.e. herbicide tolerance, fungal resistance or insect resistance, either as single traits or in combination, as multiple stacked traits. Syngenta have also conducted a smaller number of trials of crops modified for unspecified plant quality traits. Trials of herbicide tolerant rice and maize with single trait herbicide tolerance or insect resistance, and maize with multiple traits (broad-spectrum insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, fungal resistance and altered seed composition) are being conducted on the largest scale and therefore appear to be the closest to commercialisation. 29 Aside from GM crops Syngenta are developing a range of GM enzymes for use in animal feed and crop processing. The first of these products, a microbial phytase for animal feed, is due to be launched in the US in 2003.30

New technologies
Whilst Syngenta is actively involved in the introduction of first generation GM crops (see current situation with GM crops), much of its publicity has focused on its development of the next generation of GM crops including crops that have perceived benefits to customers. However, many of these new technologies are being developed less because the company has great altruistic intentions than because it sees them as a method for dissipating public and regulatory opposition to GM crops. One look at Syngenta's GM product pipeline reveals that its real focus remains input traits for commodity crops rather than vitamin A rice. Syngenta has been very publicly developing crops with altered nutritional characteristics. The company recently announced its intention to seek regulatory approval for the introduction of a new GM rice in Japan. The rice has been modified to remove a protein responsible for allergic reactions and is being aimed at kidney dialysis patients in Asia who cannot eat normal rice because of an intolerance to the cereal's high protein content. Michael Pragnell chief executive of Syngenta talking about the GM rice said:
‘It's a niche market, but it's a latch-lifter, the regulators either have to become less fastidious or deny benefits to patients. We are pursuing these markets not because we will make a fortune, but because it will introduce some regulatory tension.’31
A similar motive is behind Syngenta’s intention to collaborate in a project to give away vitamin A enhanced rice (also known as ‘Golden Rice’) to farmers in the global south.32 Vitamin A deficiency is a major cause of irreversible blindness in the global south. Critics of the Vitamin A rice point out that it does not address the underlying causes of vitamin A deficiency: mainly poverty and lack of access to a diverse diet. In the short-term, measures such as supplements (pills) and food fortification are cheap, effective and safe alternative sources of vitamin A.33 RAFI (now known as ETC Group) describe Golden Rice as a ‘Flag of Convenience’ under which biotech companies are trying to win support for GM crops.34

Syngenta and GURTs
Syngenta is a world leader in the development for commercial use of crops incorporating Genetic Use Restriction Technologies, or GURTs. GURTs enable biotech companies to retain control and ownership over their products even after they have been sold to farmers. The best known of these technologies, often known as 'Terminator' technology, is used to make crops that generate sterile seed, forcing farmers to return to the biotech company to buy new seed every year. Another GURTs application - 'Traitor' technology - enables the control of particular plant characteristics. For example, a characteristic such as plant ripening can be switched on and off with the application of a proprietary (or biotech company licensed) chemical. If commercialised, GURTs will lock farmers across the world into a cycle that stops them saving seed and forces them to buy new patented seed and/or switching chemicals from biotech companies every year. In 2000 one of the outcomes of COP 5 of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity was a call for a ban on the field-testing of GURTs crops and a moratorium on their development until their impact has been fully assessed. Despite the promises of both of its predecessor companies, Astra-Zeneca and Novartis, not to develop technologies that would prevent farmers from growing second-generation seed, Syngenta has continued to patent and develop GURTs. A report compiled for Action Aid in 200035 identified that of all the companies involved in agricultural biotechnology, Syngenta held the largest number of GURTs patents (36 of 71 patents). Amongst these patents are techniques that control the following characteristics in staple food crops: crop disease susceptibility (unless treated with specific chemicals), crop fertility, crop flowering, crop sprouting and crop aging. In recent years Syngenta's UK research and development centre at Jealotts Hill near Bracknell, Berkshire has been home to several GURTs field trials.36

5. Recent financial history/ corporate stability

All is not going well for Syngenta. End of year results for 2002 show that the company has recorded its first loss in its three years of trading. In the 2002 financial year Syngenta made a loss of $27m compared with a profit of $34m in 2001. 37 The loss was put down to 'exceptional charges' incurred by the company, compounded by a depressed agrochemicals market.38 In an interview in the FT, Syngenta CEO Michael Pragnell made much of the potential for cost savings resulting from the Astra-Zeneca/Novartis merger which formed Syngenta to boost its profitability in the short term and also emphasised the importance of GM crops in the company's longer term future. 'When the cost savings are exhausted the biotechnology pipeline will be coming through and the next generation of crop protection products will be coming through.'39 However, according to the Financial Times, some industry analysts believe that Syngenta may run into problems and 'be forced to acquire a rival if the farming market fails to recover by the time it has exhausted its cost savings'.40

Syngenta and research cut backs
The second half of 2002 saw a major shake up in Syngenta’s GM crops research and development operations leading to speculation that the company was rethinking its involvement in this area. The company withdrew from two high profile and controversial collaborations with universities in the US and UK, and announced the closure of its US genomics research centre. In September 2002 Syngenta withdrew from a collaboration with the John Innes Centre (JIC) in Norwich, UK. The collaboration was worth £50 million and included the funding of fundamental research projects at JIC, the establishment of a Syngenta Laboratory on the site within the newly-built Genome Centre and an agreement to protect and share intellectual property arising from the collaborative research.41 In November 2002 Syngenta failed to renew a five-year, $25 million deal with the University of California, Berkeley which will expire next November. The deal had involved the annual payment by Syngenta of $5 million to the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology at Berkeley. In return, the company was able to license inventions created by many of the department's scientists.42

In December 2002 Syngenta announced the closure of its Torrey Mesa Research Institute (TMRI) in San Diego, California. Originally founded by Novartis, TMRI was Syngenta’s in house genomics research centre and led the company’s efforts to decode the rice genome. The majority of staff will be relocated to other Syngenta facilities in the US.43 Syngenta has described its actions in terms of simplifying and rationalising its R&D organisation as part of the ongoing merger of the activities of AstraZeneca and Novartis. Industry commentators have seen Syngenta’s moves as marking a significant change: 'It is a big retraction in Syngenta's apparent willingness to invest in basic research,' says Chris Sommerville of the Carnegie Institute of Washington's department of plant biology in Stanford, California. Biologist Alan Jones of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, says he sees similar belt tightening throughout the agribiotech industry: 'They are hunkering down.'44

6. How important is the success of GM crops in the UK/EU to Syngenta?

Of the three leading GM crops companies operating in the UK/EU, Syngenta have perhaps the least riding on the commercial success of first generation GM crops. The commercial failure of GM crops in the UK and other areas of the EU would be a considerable set back for the company. However, the company would still be able to rely on substantial sales of conventional seeds and agrochemicals, as well as sales of GM crops elsewhere in the world.


7. Strategy
Syngenta’s Public Face

At a UK level Syngenta is making very little comment about the commercialisation of GM crops, preferring to do most of its talking through industry mouth-piece the Agricultural Biotechnology Council or ABC.
At a global level Syngenta presents a carefully constructed image to the public. Much of its publicity talks about GM crop products that will bring benefits to consumers, particularly those in the global south. This tends to obscure the fact that its GM crops product pipeline focuses almost entirely on input traits for commodity crops.

Greenwash and Sustainable Development
Like many controversial transnational companies, Syngenta has been doing its best to make its name and business activities appear to be inextricably linked to the concept of ‘sustainable development’. The company’s major activity in this area is the Syngenta Foundation. 45 Funded by Syngenta, the Foundation ‘devotes its resources to promoting economically and ecologically sustainable agriculture throughout the world. Our work focuses on poverty-oriented agricultural research and development.’46
The Foundation, run by Andrew Bennett, who, until head-hunted by Syngenta was the head of environment at the UK government’s Department for International Development47, has recently caused controversy by gaining a place on the governing body of the consultative group on the international agricultural research centres (CGIAR). CGIAR operates international agricultural research centres and seed banks whose mission statement is: ‘To contribute to food security and poverty eradication in developing countries through research, partnerships, capacity building, and policy support, promoting sustainable agricultural development based on the environmentally sound management of natural resources.’ The appointment of the Syngenta Foundation has prompted fierce criticism from NGOs involved in CGIAR who are angry at the lack of accountability shown by the organization; its increasingly pro-business, pro-corporate and pro-biotechnology policies; its failure to protect farmer rights and its failure to protect the material held in its gene banks from appropriation by corporations.48
As well as pretending to be an NGO through the Foundation, Syngenta have also been attempting to directly influence government policy in the global south. In October 2002 Syngenta sponsored a meeting of scientists organised in India by the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The principle outcome of the meeting was a draft recommendation on guidelines for biotechnology regulators in developing and developed countries. A prominent theme of discussion was the potential for small scale farmers of organic agriculture with ‘inputs’ from modern biotechnology.49

Compared to its competitors, Syngenta seems to be taking a more subtle, long-term, approach to public relations by co-opting the sustainable development agenda. It seems that by credibly establishing a ‘charitable’, ‘public-interest’ persona, Syngenta wants to gain influence over opinion forming and policy-making on GM issues, to be used in favour of the company’s long-term interests.

Appendix

Appendix 1: UK Locations Syngenta in the UK
The following section gives details of UK companies owned by Syngenta International AG and where available their location and contact details.50 Syngenta have recently scaled back its facilities in the UK as part of a global cost saving programme. Manufacturing facilities at Grimsby and Yalding in Kent have either been closed, or are due for closure in the near future. The work force at its manufacturing facilities at Huddersfield and Grangemouth has also been cut. The old Syngenta UK headquarters at Fenhurst, Surrey has closed following staff cutbacks from 800 to 300. The remaining staff have been been relocated to a new European regional centre at the Surrey Research Park in Guilford.51 Contact Detals

a. Principle Offices Syngenta

European Regional Centre -- Regional Headquarters
Priestley Road
Surrey Research Park
Guildford
Surrey
GU2 7YH
Ph : +44 (0) 1483 260000
Fax : +44 (0) 1483 260001

This address is also the registered office for the following Syngenta companies
Syngenta Ltd, Syngenta Epsilon Ltd, Syngenta Europe Ltd, Syngenta Grimsby Ltd, Syngenta Holdings Ltd, Syngenta Pensions Trustee Ltd, Syngenta Theta Ltd, Syngenta Treasury Ltd

Syngenta
London Office
6th Floor, Aldwych House,
81 Aldwych,
London
WC2B 4RP This address is also the registered office for the following Syngenta companies
Syngenta Name Protection Ltd, Syngenta Agribusiness Ltd, Syngenta UK Ltd, Syngenta Crop Protection Ltd

b. Crop Protection Business Syngenta Crop Protection

Syngenta Crop Protection UK Limited -- Sales Office
Whittlesford, Cambridge
CB2 4QT
customer.services@syngenta.com
Ph : +44 (0) 1223 833621
Fax : +44 (0) 1223 493700

Syngenta Crop Protection
Syngenta Bioline -- Sales Office
Telstar Nursery
Holland Road, Little Clacton
Clacton-on-Sea
Essex
CO16 9QG
syngenta.bioline@syngenta.com
Ph : +44 (0) 1255 863200
Fax : +44 (0) 1255 863206

c. Seed Business Syngenta Seeds
Syngenta Seeds - New Farm Crops/NK/Hilleshög -- Sales & Marketing Office
Hill Farm Road
Whittlesford, Cambridge
CB2 4QT
Ph : +44 (0) 1223 833621
Fax : +44 (0) 1223 493700

Syngenta Seeds
Market Stainton, Market Rasen
Lincolnshire
LN8 5LJ
Ph : +44 (0) 1507 343348
Fax : +44 (0) 1507 343526

Syngenta Seeds - S & G -- Sales Office
17 Summerwood Lane
Ormskirk, Lancshire
L39 8TH
Ph : +44 (0) 1704 882882
Fax : +44 (0) 1704 841176

Syngenta Seeds
New Farm Crops -- Sales Office
Pampisford Road, Great Abington
Cambridge
CB1 6AH
Ph : +44 (0) 1223 893409
Fax : +44 (0) 1223 893371

d. Research Facilities Syngenta
Jealott's Hill International Research Centre -- Research
Bracknell
Berkshire
RG42 6EY
Ph : +44 (0) 1344 424701
Fax : +44 (0) 1344 455629

Established in 1927 by ICI, Jealott’s Hill is Syngenta’s largest research site, employing over 800 staff. The work carried out here is important for Syngenta at a global level in the development of new agrochemicals and new GM crops. Facilities include a recently extended chemistry laboratory, the largest research greenhouse in Europe, field trial sites and a commercial farm used to demonstrate its products.52 All of Syngenta’s (and AstraZeneca/ Zeneca’s) recent GM crop trials have been conducted at Jealott’s Hill and it is its only major facility for this work in Europe.

Syngenta
Central Toxicology Laboratory (CTL)
Alderley Park,
Macclesfield,
Cheshire,
SK10 4TJ

Established in 1960 by ICI, Syngenta’s facility at Alderly Park is its global centre for ‘regulatory studies’ and toxicology research (including animal testing) for both agrochemicals and GM crops.53

e. Manufacturing Facilities
Syngenta
Leeds Road
Huddersfield
HD2 1FF
West Yorkshire
Tel: 01484 537456
Fax: 01484 517067
Agrochemical production facility formerly operated by Zeneca. Work here includes the manufacture of ingredients for insecticides 'Force', 'Karate' and 'Icon'

Syngenta
Earls Road
Grangemouth
Stirlingshire
FK3 8XG
Tel: 01324 494000
Agrochemical production facility formerly operated by Zeneca

Appendix 2: UK Directors Directors of Syngenta Ltd54
The following people are directors of Syngenta Ltd
Matthew Bayliss (Secretary)
Robert Bissell
Neil Dempsy
Keith Hill
Christopher Richards
Kevin William

Appendix 3: Global Locations
At an international level Syngenta is owned and operated by Syngenta International AG based in Switzerland. Syngenta International AG
P.O. Box
CH-4002 Basel
Switzerland.
Tel +41 61 323 1111
www.syngenta.com

Appendix 4: Board of Directors and Executive Management Board of Directors
Syngenta International AG has the following board of directors55

Heinz Imhof

Chair of the board of directors of Syngenta and head of the chair's committee. Currently also member of the Supervisory Committee of SGCI (Schweizerische Gesellschaft für die Chemische Industrie), and Chairman of the Foundation Board of the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture.

Sir David Barnes
Vice Chair of the board of directors of Syngenta and member of the chair's committee. Currently also serving as a non-executive deputy chair of the board of directors of Astra-Zeneca, non-executive director of Prudential Corporation PLC, non-executive chair of Imperial Cancer Research Technology (ICRT) Limited, member of the board of trustees of the British Red Cross and a member of the board of governors of Ashridge Management College.

Peggy Bruzelius
Director of Syngenta. Currently also chair of Grand Hotel Holdings and Lancelot Asset Management AB, director of AB Electrolux, Scania AB, Ratos AB, AB Drott, Axfood AB, Axel Johnson AB and the Swedish Trade Council. Senior advisor to Lehman Brothers.

Peter Doyle
Director of Syngenta. Doyle is currently a non-executive Director of Avidex Ltd, chair of the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSCR) and a trustee of the Nuffield Foundation.

Rupert Gasser
Director of Syngenta. H is also currently a non-executive Director of Lonza Group AG and a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of Alcon Laboratories Inc.

Pierre Landolt
Director of Syngenta and Novartis AG. He is also currently Chairman of AxialPar, Ecocarbon LLC and CITCO, Executive Chairman of Mocó Agropecuária Ltda and Vice Chairman of Parmigiani Fleurier. He is also President of the Sandoz Family Foundation.

Pedro Reiser
Director of Syngenta. Previous appointments include Member of the Board and Adviser of Novartis Pharma Japan until 2001, President and CEO for Sandoz and Novartis since 1995. Prior to that Reiser held a number of senior and management positions at Sandoz. Reiser was also President and CEO of Holvis AG in Basel, Switzerland.

Michael Pragnell
Chief Executive Officer and director of Syngenta and member of the chair's committee. He is also president of the European Crop Protection Association (ECPA).56

Martin Taylor
Director of Syngenta. He is currently also an international advisor to Goldman Sachs and the Chair of the WH Smith Group PLC, as well as director of Antigenics, Inc. and of RTL Group SA. He has also chaired and sat upon various United Kingdom government task forces, including heading a Task Force looking at options for the reform of the tax and benefit systems.

Peter Thompson
Director of Syngenta. Currently also President and CEO of President and Chief Executive Officer of PepsiCo Beverages International. Other positions currently held are director of the US-Russia Business Council, director of the Immigration & Refugee Services of America and Boy Scouts of America and a trustee of the Stanwich School, Greenwich.

Rolf Watter
Director of Syngenta. Other appointments currently held include partner in the law firm Bär & Karrer in Zurich, Professor at the Law School of the University of Zurich, board member of Forbo Holding AG, Eglisau, A.W. Faber-Castell (Holding) AG, Kusnacht and Galileo Switzerland AG, all of which are Swiss companies.

Felix Weber
Director of Syngenta. Dr. Weber is currently also Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President of Adecco SA.

Executive Management
Syngenta International AG is run by the following management committee57

Heinz Imhof- chairman of the board of directors
Michael Pragnell- chief executive officer
Richard Steiblin- chief financial officer
John Atkin- chief operating officer, crop protection
Jeffery Beard- chief operating officer, seeds
Bruce Bissell- global operations
John Elias- human resources
David Jones- business development
David Lawrence- research and technology
Christoph Mäder- legal and taxes


Appendix 5: Key Syngenta Staff involved in the commercialisation of GM Crops in the UK

Dr Simon Bright: Head of European Genomics for Syngenta is a panel member of the government sponsored GM Science Review. He is also a visiting Professor at Reading University and member of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) strategy board.58

Professor Chris Leaver: Former consultant for Syngenta (1998-2002) is a panel member of the government sponsered GM Science Review. He is also Professor of Plant Science at University of Oxford and a council member of the BBSRC.59

Appendix 6: Lobbying and PR
Lobby Groups Syngenta is involved with the following industry lobby groups. For more information on each of these groups see the forthcoming Corporate Watch briefing 'An Over View of the GM crops Industry in the UK' Agricultural Biotechnology Council (ABC) http://www.abcinformation.org/

CropGen http://www.cropgen.org

Crop Protection Association http://www.baa.org.uk/

British Society of Plant Breeders (BSPB) http://www.bspb.co.uk

SCIMAC (Supply Chain Initiative on Modified Agricultural Crops) www.ukasta.org.uk/news/scimac/

Agricultural Biotechnology In Europe (ABE) http://www.abeurope.info

Europabio (European Association for Bioindustries) http://www.europabio.org

European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) http://www.ecpa.be

European Seed Association (ESA) http://www.euroseeds.org


PR
Syngenta has used the following UK based PR company:
Lexington Communications www.lexcomm.co.uk

Appendix 7: Further sources of information
The following publications and web sites are excellent independent sources of information on Syngenta.

Genewatch
Syngenta profile available online at http://www.genewatch.org/GeneSrch/Companies/Syngenta.htm

Pesticides Action Network report ‘Paraquat-Syngenta’s controversial herbicide’
by John Madeley for PAN UK, Berne Declaration, PANAP, Swedish Declaration for Nature Conservation and Foro Emanus available online at <http://www.panap.net/docs/action/ParaquatReport.pdf>

Genetics Forum report ‘Syngenta: Switching off farmers' rights?’
by Hugh Warwick published jointly by Berne Declaration, Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, GeneWatch UK and Action Aid, October 2000 available online at http://www.actionaid.org/resources/pdfs/syngenta.pdf



References

1 Syngenta ‘Timeline’ website available online at www.syngenta.com/en/about_syngenta/time_prin.aspx (viewed 07/06/03)
2 based on table 4, page 11 of ‘GM Crops-going against the grain’ Action Aid, May 2003 available online at www.actionaid.org/resources/pdfs/gatg.pdf (viewed 07/06/03)
3 Syngenta annual report 2002 available online at www.syngenta.com/en/downloads/ar2002_en.pdf (viewed 07/06/03)
5 DEFRA ‘National Lists of Varieties Public Register for GM Sugar Beet’ web page applications 45/774 and 45/813 available online at www.defra.gov.uk/planth/pvs/pubreg/preg07.htm (viewed 07/06/03)
6 DEFRA‘Index of public register entries for applications to release GMOs for any other purpose than marketing under Directive 90/220/EEC’ web page available online at www.defra.gov.uk/environment/gm/exper.htm (viewed 07/06/03) and Genewatch Syngenta profile available online at www.genewatch.org/GeneSrch/Companies/Syngenta.htm (viewed 07/06/03)
7 DEFRA ‘Part B Consents Granted to Release Genetically Modified Organisms’ web page (application 02/R34/04) available online at www.defra.gov.uk/environment/gm/consents/index.htm (viewed 07/0603)
8 Syngenta position statement on Golden Rice available online at www.syngenta.com/en/about_syngenta/our_views.aspx (viewed 07/06/03)
9 BBSRC ‘How are we governed?’ web page available online at www.bbsrc.ac.uk/about/gov/Welcome.html (viewed 07/06/03)
10 Syngenta history web page available online at www.syngenta.co.uk/en/about_syngenta/time_prin.asp (viewed 26/06/03)
11 Syngenta history web page available online at www.syngenta.co.uk/en/about_syngenta/time_prin.asp (viewed 26/06/03)
12 ‘Advanta: Worldwide Challenges’ Jos Bijman in AgBioForum -vol 4, No 1, p34-39 available online at www.agbioforum.org/v4n1/v4n1a06-bijman.htm (viewed 07/06/03)
13 Syngenta CEO Michael Pragnell quoted in ‘Green and Dying’ in The Economist 16.11.00. available on line at www.biotech-info.net/green_and_dying.html (viewed 26,03,2002)
14 Both Ciba, and Sandoz (through its NK subsidiary in conjunction with Monsanto) began research in this area in the mid to late1980s. see www.nk-us.com/maxtech/btcorn/timeline.asp
15 NK seeds BT corn timeline web page available online at www.nk-us.com/maxtech/btcorn/timeline2.asp (viewed 26/06/03)
16 University of Reading web page on genetically modified Tomatoes available online at www.ncbe.reading.ac.uk/NCBE/GMFOOD/tomato.html (viewed 26/06/03)
17 NK and Rogers seeds US websites available online at www.nk-us.com/ and www.rogersadvantage.com/ (viewed 26/06/03)
18 NK seeds Canada website available online at www.nkcanada.com/ (viewed 26/06/03)
19 ‘Biowatch S.A. calls for rejection of the applications brought by Syngenta Seedco for the testing and cultivation of Bt 11’ Biowatch Press Release available online at www.biowatch.org.za/pr04-11-02.htm (viewed 26/06/03)
20 DEFRA Index of public register entries for applications to release GMOs for any other purpose than marketing under Directive 90/220/EEC available online at www.defra.gov.uk/environment/gm/exper.htm (viewed 17/06/03)
21 DEFRA available online at www.defra.gov.uk/environment/gm/consents/pdf/02-r34-04.pdf (viewed 17/06/02)
22 the Genewatch UK database available online at www.genewatch.org/GeneSrch (viewed 26/06/03)
23 DEFRA Plant Varieties and Seeds Section, Public Register - National Lists of Varieties (GM) available online at www.defra.gov.uk/planth/pvs/pubreg/preg07.htm (viewed 26/06/03)
24 information available online at http://gmoinfo.jrc.it/csnifs/C-BE-99-01.pdf (viewed 26/06/03)
25 ‘GM crops in performance worry’ by Tom Allen-Stevens Farmers Weekly, UK, 21/03/03 available online at www.gene.ch/genet/2003/Mar/msg00076.html (viewed 24/06/03)
27 ‘Review of GMOs under research and development and in the pipeline in Europe’, March 2003, European Science and Technology Observatory (EU).
28 Syngenta ‘Tommorrows Products’ web page available online at www.syngenta.com/en/products_services/tomprod.asp (viewed 26/06/03)
29 for information on US GM field trials go to www.nbiap.vt.edu/cfdocs/fieldtests1.cfm
30'’Syngenta shares hit by cautious 2003 outlook' David Firn, Feb 20, 2003 Financial Times
31'Syngenta tries rice in fight for GM approval’, by David Firn, Financial Times, August 19 2002 Financial Times
32 Syngenta press release 16,05,00 available online at www.syngenta.com/en/media/article.asp?article_id=38 (viewed 05,11,02)
33 Greenpeace ‘GE rice is fool's gold’ available online at http://archive.greenpeace.org/~geneng and http://archive.greenpeace.org/~geneng/reports/food/GRice.pdf (viewed 05,11,02)
34 ‘Golden Rice and Trojan Trade Reps: A case study in the public sectors mismanagement of intellectual property’ RAFI Communique #66, Sept/Oct 2000 available online at www.rafi.org/documents/com_goldenrice.pdf (viewed 05,11,02)
35Syngenta switching off farmers' rights? Hugh Warwick, Genetics Forum, October 2000 www.actionaid.org/resources/pdfs/syngenta.pdf (viewed 26/06/03)
36DEFRA GMO Public Register Index, www.defra.gov.uk/environment/gm/pdf/exper.pdf, potatoes (00/R1/12 and 01/R34/01), oil seed rape (01/R34/02) (viewed 26/06/03)
37 ‘Syngenta shares hit by cautious 2003 outlook' David Firn, Feb 20, 2003 Financial Times
38 ‘Syngenta shares hit by cautious 2003 outlook' David Firn, Feb 20, 2003 Financial Times
39Syngenta CEO Michael Pragnell quoted in ‘Syngenta shares hit by cautious 2003 outlook' David Firn, Feb 20, 2003 Financial Times
40‘Syngenta shares hit by cautious 2003 outlook' David Firn, Feb 20, 2003 Financial Times
41 John Innes Centre loses research partner as company restructures. BBSRC press release, 18 September 2002, archived on line at www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/pressreleases/02_09_18_jic.html and http://ngin.tripod.com/190902e.htm (viewed 26/06/03)
42 ‘Biotech public-private partnership appears to be over’, Associated Press/The Mercury News 19/12/02 available online at www.gene.ch/genet/2002/Dec/msg00073.html (viewed 26/06/03)
43 ‘Retreat from Torrey Mesa: a chill wind in ag research’ SCIENCE, Vol. 298, 13 December 2002 By Gretchen Vogel, archived online at http://ngin.tripod.com/221202b.htm (viewed 26/06/03)
44 ‘Biotech public-private partnership appears to be over’ Dec. 19. 2002. Mercury News, archived online at www.siliconvalley.com/mld/siliconvalley/4776406.htm and http://ngin.tripod.com/201202a.htm (viewed 26/06/03)
45 see Syngenta Foundation website www.syngentafoundation.com/ (viewed 26/06/03)
46 Syngenta Foundation web site ‘about us’ page available online at www.syngentafoundation.com/about_syngenta_foundation.htm (viewed 05,11,02)
47‘GM firm recruits Short's aid adviser: Activists criticise business-government link’, John Vidal,
14.09.02 available online at www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,3604,791917,00.html (viewed 26/06/03)

48 ‘SYNGENTA NOW ON GOVERNING BODY OF CGIAR’ 05.11.02 NGIN Archive available online at http://members.tripod.com/~ngin/051102a.htm (viewed 26/06/03)
49'SYNGENTA WORKSHOP SETS GUIDELINES FOR BIOTECH REGULATORS' 4 November 2002, NGIN available on line at http://ngin.tripod.com/041102d.htm (viewed 26/06/03)
50 Syngenta UK homepage available online at www.syngenta.com/country/gb/index_en.asp (viewed 23,10,2002) and Companies House companies index available online at www.companieshouse.gov.uk/info (viewed 23,10,2002)
51 Protel Project Bulletin Analysis available online at www.protelprojects.com/2002/build/newsArchive/2001/NewsArchSept01.htm and from BBC News, 'Factory closure costs 200 jobs' 31.09.01 available online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/1518468.stm (viewed 26/06/03)
52 Syngenta ‘Jealotts Hill’ web page available online at www.syngenta.com/en/about_syngenta/research_tech_where.aspx#hill (viewed 26/06/03)
53 Syngenta ‘CTL’ web page available online at www.syngenta.com/en/about_syngenta/research_tech_where.aspx#ctl (viewed 26/06/03)
54 Companies House Current Appointments Report for SYNGENTA LIMITED (compiled 24/10/2002)
55 Sygenta web site available online at www.syngenta.com/en/syngenta/board.asp (viewed 26/05/03)
56 more information on the ECPA is available online at www.ecpa.be (viewed 26/06/03)
57Information form Syngenta website available online at www.syngenta.com/en/about_syngenta/mgmt.aspx (viewed 26/06/03)
58 the GM Science Review web-site available online at www.gmsciencedebate.org.uk/panel/members/bright.htm (viewed 26/06/03)
59 the GM Science Review web-site available online at www.gmsciencedebate.org.uk/panel/members/leaver.htm (viewed 26/06/03)

Biotech family tree guide: Bayer l Monsanto l Resources



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